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AP Psych Myers-3

AP Psychology Biological Basis of Behavior Part Two

QuestionAnswer
adaptation An inherited characteristic that increases in a population because it provides a survival or reproductive advantage.
aggression physical or verbal behavior that is intended to hurt or harm someone.
behavior genetics the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior.
Charles Darwin renowned naturalist and thinker associated with the theory of evolution by natural selection
chromosomes threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes
collectivism sense of "we". priorities are given to a certain group. One's identity is defined accordingly
culture the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.
environment refers to every nongenetic, or external, influence on our traits and behaviors.
evolutionary psychology the study of evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection.
fraternal twins develop from two separate eggs fertilized by different sperm and therefore are no more genetically similar than ordinary siblings.
gender the biologically and socially influenced characteristic by which people define male and female.
gender identity one's personal sense of being male or female.
gender role a culturally prescribed set of behaviors for males and females.
gender schema theory children acquire a cultural concept of what it means to be female or male and adjust their behavior accordingly.
gender-typing the acquisition of a traditional feminine or masculine gender role.
genes the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; they are segments of the DNA molecules capable of synthesizing a protein.
genome the complete instructions for making an organism - consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromosomes
heritability the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The ___________ of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied.
identical twins develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two and therefore are genetically identical.
individualism Giving priority to one's own goals over group and defining one's identity in terms of personal sttributes rather than group identification.
interaction occurs when the effects of one factor (such as heredity) depends on another factor (such as environment).
memes variations in ideas, fashions, and innovations passed from one person to another that cause rapid cultural mutations.
molecular genetics the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes.
mutation a process in which the genetic material of a person, a plant or an animal changes in structure when it is passed on to children, causing different phycical characteristics to develop.
natural selection the principle that among the range of inherited trait variations - those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
norms understood social prescriptions, or rules, for accepted and expected behavior.
nucleotides. biochemical units that make up DNA and genes.
personal space personal space-the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies.
role. a culturally prescribed set of behaviors expected of those who occupy a particular social position.
social learning theory people learn social behavior (such as gender roles) by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished.
temperament a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity.
testosterone the principal male sex hormone. During prenatal development, it stimulates the development of the external male sex organs.
X Chromosome the sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two of these chromosomes; males have one. One of these chromosome from each parent produces a female child.
Y chromosome the sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child.
Created by: yoster