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MCRT- Pt Assessment

Key Terms

QuestionAnswer
Abdominal Paradox abnormal breathing pattern seen as a sinking inward motion of the abdomen with each inspiratory effort; a sign of diaphragm fatigue.
adventitious lung sounds (ALS) abnormal lung sounds superimposed on the basic underlying breath sounds.
angina pectoris paroxysmal attack of severe chest pain associated with coronary insufficiency; commonly radiates from the heart to the shoulders and arms.
barrel chest abnormal increase in the anterior-posterior diameter of the chest due to hyperinflation of the lungs.
bradycardia abnormally decreased heart rate.
bradypnea abnormal decrease in breathing rate.
bronchophony abnormal voice sounds heard over lung consolidation.
clubbing bulbous swelling of the terminal phalanges of the fingers and toes, often associated with certain lung disease.
cough forceful expiratory effort designed to expel mucus and other foreign material from the upper airway.
crackles discontinuous type of adventitious lung sound.
cyanosis abnormal bluish discoloration of the skin or mucous membranes.
diaphoresis secretion of sweat, especially the profuse secretion associated with an elevated body temperature, physical exertion, exposure to heat, and mental or emotional stress.
diastolic pressure baseline blood pressure in the arteries during ventricular relaxation.
dyspnea difficult or labored breathing as perceived by the patient.
febrile to have a fever.
fetid foul smelling.
fever abnormal elevation of body temperature due to disease.
gallop rhythm abnormal heart sound that resembles the gallop of a horse caused by addition of an S3 and/or S4; most often indicates heart failure.
heave abnormal pulsation felt over the percordium; often due to ventricular hypertrophy.
hematemesis vomiting blood.
hemoptysis coughing up blood from the respiratory tract.
hepatomegaly Enlargement of the liver.
hypertension Persistently high arterial blood pressure.
hypotension abnormal condition in which the blood pressure is not adequate for normal perfusion and oxygenation of the tissues.
hypothermia Lower than normal body temperature.
jugular venous distention abnormal distention of the jugular veins; most often due to heart failure.
Kussmaul respiration hyperpnea associated with diabetic ketoacidosis.
Kussmaul’s sign increased jugular venous pressure during inspiration.
loud P2 abnormally loud closure of the pulmonic valve as part of the second heart sound; usually due to pulmonary hypertension.
lymphadenopathy of or pertaining to a disease of the lymph nodes; refers also to the visualization of enlarged lymph nodes on radiographs.
mucoid resembling mucus.
murmurs abnormal heart sound created by turbulent blood flow through a narrowed or incompetent heart valve.
orthodeoxia decrease in PaO2 due to changes in position.
orthopnea labored breathing in the reclining position.
pedal edema swelling of the ankles usually due to heart failure.
phlegm mucus from the tracheobronchial tree.
platypnea opposite of orthopnea; that is , an abnormal condition characterized by difficult breathing in the standing position, which is relieved in the lying or recumbent position
pneumothorax presence of air or gas in the pleural space of the thorax; if this air or gas is trapped under pressure, a tension pneumothorax exists.
pulse deficit discrepancy between the ventricular rate auscultated a the apex of the heart and the arterial rate of the radial pulse.
pulse pressure difference between systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure.
pulsus alternans alternating between strong and weak heart beats.
pulsus paradoxus abnormal decrease in pulse pressure with each inspiratory effort.
purulent consisting of or containing pus.
respiratory alternans alternating between use of eh diaphragm for short periods and use of eh accessory muscles to breathe. It is indicative of end-stage respiratory muscle fatigue.
retractions sinking inward of the skin around the chest cage with each inspiratory effort.
sputum mucus from the respiratory tract that has passed through the mouth.
stridor high-pitched, continuous type of adventitious lung sound heard from the upper airway.
subcutaneous emphysema accumulation of air in the subcutaneous tissues (under the skin) due to leakage from the lung.
syncope temporary unconsciousness; fainting.
systolic pressure peak blood pressure occurring in the arteries during ventricular contraction.
tachycardia abnormally elevated heart rate.
tachypnea abnormal elevation of breathing rate.
thrills fine palpable vibration felt accompanying a cardiac or vascular murmur.
tripodding breathing technique most often used by patients with COPD in which they lean forward and place their elbows on a table or arms of a chair to support breathing with the accessory muscles.
wheezes high pitched, continuous type of adventitious lung sound.
Created by: smiddleton