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Sociology test

Passengers sitting in an airport gate area to board a plane are an example of a: crowd
Why did Cooley refer to some groups as "primary groups"? all of the above are correct
A secondary group is a social group that is impersonal and tries to accomplish some specific goal
Which of the following is the best example of a primary group a family gathering for a religious holiday
Which of the following is the best example of a secondary group? a Microsoft corp awards banquet
What is the term for group leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks? instrumental leadership
Which type of leader is likely to use humor to lighten a serious moment expressive leader
Which type of leaders tend to downplay their position and power, allowing the group to function more or less on its own laissez-faire leaders
Solomon Asch's research, in which subjects were asked to match lines, showed the power of group membership to generate conformity
Which of the following terms refers to a social group that people use as a point of reference in making evaluations or decisions? reference group
What is the term for a social group toward which we feel competition or opposition? out-group
What sociological term refers to a number of weak social ties among persons who have little common identity and little interaction? network
The development of the Internet all of the above
From the point of view of parents, what type of formal organization is a school's PTA a normative organization
Which of the following is NOT one of the traits of bureaucracy noted by Max Weber? favoring kin over strangers
Max Weber argued that formal organizations, while efficient, have the ability to ________people within them. alienate
The basic idea behind scientific management is that management can use scientific principles to make a business more productive
Which of the following is NOT one of the principles of McDonaldization creativity
Sexuality is not just about having sex because sexuality all of the above
________are people who feel that they are trapped in the wrong body Transexuals
When did the sexual revolution begin It began in the 1920s but came of age by the late 1960s
The effect of the sexual counterrevolution was that more people began to limit their number of sexual partners and some chose to abstain from sex entirely
Little or no sexual attraction to people of either sex is called asexuality
Elite prostitutes are referred to as _____while _____are at the bottom of the sex worker hierarchy call girls, streetwalkers
In global perspective, prostitution is most common in low-income nations, where women have fewer economic opportunities
Which theoretical approach rests on the idea that society needs to regulate human sexuality the structural functional approach
Criticism of the social conflict approach's view of sexuality would include the fact that all of the above are correct
Crime differs from deviance in that crime is a violation of norms enacted into law
Which of the following comes closest to the correct view of the role of biology in causing people to commit crimes biological factors may have a real but small effect in causing some people to commit crimes
Emile durkheim's basic insight is that deviance is a normal element of social organization
In Robert merton's strain theory, the term __________ correctly describes a person who gets rich by defrauding a bank innovation
The basic idea behind labeling theory is that deviance arises not so much from what people do as how others respond to what they do
Retrospective labeling refers to the process of interpreting someone's past as consistent with present deviance
Edwin Sutherland's differential association theory links deviance to the amount of contact a person has with others who encourage or discourage the behavior in question
_________refers to the illegal actions of a corporation or people acting on it behalf Corporate crime
A hate crime is defined as a criminal act motivated by racial or other bias
Crimes against persons includes all but which of the following burglary
In legal terms, a crime is composed of which two components the act and criminal intent
Which justification uses the threat of punishment to discourage criminality deterrence
Compared with placing people who commit crimes in prison, community-based corrections have the advantage of all of the above
The concept criminal recidivism refers to subsequent offenses by people previously convicted of criminal offenses
One of the following statements is not true One family's social standing typically changes a great deal from generation to generation
In a caste system there is little or no social mobility
Typically, the degree of status consistency is greater in caste than class systems
Structural social mobility refers to change in social position of many people due to changes in society itself
While the Davis and Moore thesis suggest to each according to the importance of one's work, Karl Marx supported the idea from each according to his ability, to each according to need
Which of the following types of societies comes closest to being egalitarian hunting and gathering
Which term refers to wages or salary from work plus earning from any investments income
which of the following statements about jobs is not true Most of the highest ranked occupations in the United States are dominated by women
Following the analysis of karl Marx, which class forms the core of the industrial proletariat the working class
Which of the following terms refers to upward or downward social mobility of children in relation to their parents intergenerational social mobility
high income nations all of the above are correct
poor countries are characterized by all of the above are correct
Neocolonialism refers to the process by which multinational corporations dominate the economy of a poor country
Modernization theory claims that the main causes of poverty involve culture and technology
Dependency theory differs from modernization theory by explaining global inequality in terms of the exploitation of poor countries by rich countries
While modernization theory focuses on _______ dependency theory focuses on _____________ the production of wealth; the distribution of wealth
Critics of dependency theory claim that it incorrectly states that one country gains wealth only at the expense of another
Created by: 1168440992
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