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Chapter 13 - ANT2410


1860s, Northern Paiute Indian living is Sierra Nevada, first Ghost Dance prophet Wodziwab
1960-2000 membership in various __ churches rose from 2 million to 12 million Pentecostal
2nd Ghost dance prophet, son of Wodziwab & probably saw Ghost Dance & heard prophecies as boy Wovoka
African based religion originated in Cuba, emerged from slave society, example of syncretism Santeria
African deity identified w/Catholic saint in Voodoo & Santeria oricha
American civil rights movement, Iranian revolution, rise of Taliban in Afghanistan, conflict between Pakistan & India over state of Kashmir are all examples of __ __ in which religion has played __ __ social movements; critical role
American society cargo cult; central tenant of prosperity theology is that God wants Christians to be wealthy World-Faith Movement
Castle found that among Fulani women rarely give numeric answers when asked about how many children they want, frequently answering that it is up to God
Dec 28-29 1890 Seventh Calvary captured remaining Ghost Dancers; 350 Sioux Ghost Dancers killed incl women & children Wounded Knee
EB Tylor believed evolution of religion was part of more general progression toward __ & __ logic; rationality
European & involuntary African invasion brought disaster to Native American societies
Europeans attempted to __ African religions but slaves __ by combining African religion, Catholicism, & French spiritualism in Cuba suppress; resisted
Frankl came to believe that taking responsibility for finding meaning under all circumstances was __ __ of life central task
Fulani believe there are __ who inhabit human forms, are invisible or take animal shapes & __ __ that are hostile to humankind sorcerers; other spirits
Fulani children are sometimes dressed in __ & __; bits of broken __ are woven into their hair rags; straw; gourd
Fulani code of honor; one aspect to appear self-controlled & stoic at all occasions pulaaku
Fulani sorcerers & other spirits attack anything present in __ excess
Fulani's treatment of their children are __ to keep them from attention of sorcerers & spirits & make sure they __ measures; survive
Ghost Dance prophets that foresaw that ancestors would return on__ __; __would swallow up all whites but leave goods behind for Native Americans who became his followers immense train; cataclysm
Ghost dancers of Sioux who did not obey order to stop fled to into __ to perform Ghost Dance ceremonies & await __ that would sweep oppressors from plains badlands; cataclysm
Hindu harvest festival in which members of lower class/castes throw colored powder at males of middle/upper class Holi
Hopi creation story serves as a(n) __ for society charter
Hopi live their __ __ of their world as they grow blue corn religious understanding
Hopi re-experience __ of their land by various clans as they farm settlement
Hopi tradition holds that __ were given land to farm together as they became members of tribe clans
Indian fundamentalist group which plays important role in national politics Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)
Jewish unorthodox groups such as Lubavitch Hassidim have been __ growing
Malinowski wrote, stories are not merely __ tales but __ __ force idle; hard-worked active
Maya states attempt to suppress __ __ or bring them under bureaucratic control independent shamans
Melanesian’s observed whites making __ __ on scraps of paper, built __ __, & behaves in seemingly __ __ secret signs; strange structures; unusual ways
Melanesian’s of cargo cults were not __ rather working with __ knowledge derived from their limited experiences irrational; objective
Native American Church has been successful because it allows members to reinforce their __ & __ to demands of larger society identity; adapt
Native American Church also known as __ __ peyote religion
Native American religious nativistic movement of late 19th century; Ghost Dance
Native American tribes heard Ghost Dance vision in __ ways diverse
Native American vision quest- spirit acted as personal __ or __ protector; guardian
Native American vision quests expect person to develop special relationship with __ __ that would provide them w/power & knowledge particular spirit
Ndembu men & women publicly insult each other’s sexual abilities & extol their own, but no one is allowed to take offense Wubwang’u
Rastafarian religion is an example of vitalist religion
Santeria identifies African __ w/Catholic __ deities; saints
Santeria spread throughout Spanish __, Brazil, & N America taking __ forms in different locations Caribbean; different
Tuner argued that in liminal states people experienced state of __ & __ equality; oneness
US celebration example of communitas New Year’s Eve
Walter Cannon argued individual psychologically vulnerable & aware of being attacked by sorcery would exhibit extreme __ __ that would have profound psychological effect stress reaction
Wiccans are no more likely to commit __ __ than members of more mainstream religions evil acts
Wovoka called for peace w/whites, but also taught that whites would either be carried away by __ __ or become __ high winds; Indians
Wovoka taught that wearing __ __ painted w/designs he saw in his visions had power to protect them from __ special clothing; bullets
Wovoka urged Indians to return to __ __ traditional practices
__ & __ fundamentalism are mentioned most in US news media Christian; Islamic
__ __ of believers in all fundamentalist tradition understand world in __ terms & see violence as divinely __ response small percentage; absolute; ordained
__ __ ordered Sioux to stop Ghost Dance government agents
Wiccan (or neopagan) is __ __ modern-day witch
key way for religions to provide responses to some of central concerns of their believers is to explain aspects of physical & social environment
ability to harm others by harboring malevolent thoughts about them witchcraft
after reincorporation, person takes on __ & __ of their new social status rights; obligations
all religions consist of series of stories told by member of group at __ level fundamental
all religions share at least __ _ characteristics six common
allows Azande witches to cause misfortune & death to others mangu
allows people to grasp often complex & abstract specifics of theology that underlie them symbolic representation
almost all societies have shamans, but they are likely to be only religious practitioners in __ & __ societies band; tribal
although there is no single question answered by every religion, belief systems all provide responses to some of __ __ of their believers central concerns
among Thompson Indians, guardian spirit would teach boy __ __ by which he could be called spirit song
animal, plant, or other aspect of natural world held to be ancestral or to have other intimate relationships w/members of group totem
anthropological study of religion shows that there is no __ __ question answered by __ __ one single; every religion
anthropologists may attempt to analyze what religion __ in a society, but members of that society experience it through their __ & __ does; beliefs; practices
anthropologists often refer to __ & __involving liminality at antistructure rituals; statuses
anthropologists organize religious practitioners charged w/ organizing/leading major ritual events shamans & priests
antistructure is frequently found in __ __ religious ritual
antistructure is temporary ritual __ of established order & is important in helping people more fully realize __ of self & other dissolution; oneness
any communication between people & spirits/gods in which people praise, plead/request w/out assurance of results prayer
argued that dance & worship in which aborigines achieved ecstatic religious experience helped to bind members of society together Durkheim
argues that Westerners are obsessed w/ cargo, w/ desire for wealth & material goods, & they increasingly turn to ritual strategies to obtain them Lamont Lindstrom
argues that idea people do not count their children often based on failure to understand that statements people make about fertility & family size are often based on religious ideas Sarah Castle
argues that numeracy about children is central to population control & that fertility decline not far away when people start conceptualizing their family size & cannot take place w/out such conceptualizing Etienne van de Walle
attempt to mechanistically control supernatural forces magic
because not all societies do not distinguish between __ & __ ways Americans do, defining __ is difficult natural; supernatural; religion
before advent of modern medicine, thought to be caused by broken taboos, sorcery, witchcraft, or actions that caused person to fall out of spiritual balance illness
before harvesting, farmers make sacrifices to di of first owners of their field Trinidad
belief in impersonal spiritual force that infuses universe animatism
belief in many gods polytheism
belief in single god monotheism
belief that imitating an action in religious ritual will cause action to happen in material world imitative magic
belief that things once in contact w/person/object retain an invisible connection w/that person/object contagious magic
believe that witches’ bodies contain mangu; generally believed they were unable to prevent themselves from causing evil Azande
believes to contain supernatural power in many cultures; symbol of boundary between self & notself, both part of person & separable from person hair
belongs to 1500-1600; 50,000 Europeans’ murdered during this time ½ w/in borders of current-day Germany witch craze
boy would begin searching for guardian spirits btwn 12-16; prepare by exhaustion & wearing special clothing; pilgrimage into mountains; strenuous regime continued until boy has religious experience Thompson Indians – vision quest
cargo cults were originally described on islands of __ Melanesia
cargo cults were seen as form of religious __ against __ __ resistance; colonial rule
cattle are killed & eaten only in ritual context is __ of E African __ __ as practiced by such groups as Nuer & Pokot essence; cattle complex
characterized by nature of their understanding of world to come & methods for achieving that world religious movements
chiefs had higher degree of mana than ordinary people Tahiti
claimed to have rediscovered ancient beliefs of aboriginal fairy race Gerald Gardner
collection of preparations used as medications pharmacopoeia
colonization, disease, or technological change can cause a society to change very rapidly
common in Appalachia among coal miners & other rural poor who lead difficult & dangerous lives holiness church
conscious & intentional use of magic sorcery
contain supernatural power & often used in religious ritual & surrounded by taboos boundary symbols
containing many different & sometimes contradictory meanings in single word, idea/object multivalent
coronation of __ __ fulfilled biblical prophecies; he was messiah & hope of freedom for all black people Haile Selassie
counting Fulani children may show __ & __ __ of sorcerers & spirits excess; draw attention
critical difference between science & religion is scientific proposition must be open to __ __, religion is under __ __ __ empirical testing; no such constraint
critical feature of prayer is that people believe that its result depend on will of __ __rather than on __ __ performed spirit world; human actions
cross has been critical __ __ from 312CE until 20th century when frequent feature of military __ & __ in WWI & II military symbol; insignia; propaganda
cultural influence among Crow is that they obtained their __ __ on fourth night of their seclusion; four mystical number spiritual blessing
curing rituals express & reinforce __ of a culture & __ of a society values; solidarity
derives from certification by religious institution priest represents & sometimes given w/ little/no training priestly authority
development of __ is directly related to Russian invasion of __ Taliban; Afghanistan
discouraged by Judeo-Christian-Islamic tradition but compulsory among Sambia of Papua New Guinea sexual relations between men
disease, warfare, & technological changes __ traditional native lifeways & belief systems in Native American societies undermined
distinctions between prayer, sacrifice, & magic are more matter of __ than of __ __ degree; exclusive classification
divination might be used to predict future, diagnose disease, find hidden objects, or discover something about past; many cultures use to discover who committed a crime
divination ritual, shoulderblade of caribou/other animal scorched by fire; scorched bone used as map of hunting area & cracks in bone are read as info on best place to hunt scapulomancy
divination technique used by farmers water witching or dowsing
early 2000s non-Judeo-Christian religions accounted for __ of population 2.5%
early 20th century coined phrase animatism RR Marett
endless desire for consumer goods & beliefs that purchases of specific brands of cars, drinks, or clothing are examples of how American __ __ is bit like cargo cult economic system
existence of beings, powers, states, places & qualities that cannot be measured by any agreed upon scientific means nonempirical
extremely popular in US & Latin America; Oral Roberts, Jan & Paul Crouch, Creflo Dollar, Benny Hinn, & Kenneth Copeland prosperity theology preachers
fact that __ __ are rarely members of holiness church groups is proof that members have access to __ __ __ they lack social elites; forms of power
failure of __ __ is understood as resulting from incorrect performance of ritual rather than refusal of spirits to act magical request
first Europeans to write of cargo cults were __ __, who saw them as irrational beliefs & activities of primitive people who had succumbed to some kind of __ colonial administrators; madness
first phase of rite of passage-person or group detached from former status separation
first step to limiting population growth is to teach people to __ their children & understand that they can __ on number of children they want count; decide
focusing on a coming catastrophe will signal beginning of new age & eventual establishment of paradise millenarian
focusing on return of society to earlier time that believers understand as better, more holy, than current era nativism
focusing on coming of an individual who will usher in utopian world messianic
for healing when they have diseases that are not recognized by technological medicine, lack money to pay for medical treatment, or have tried treatments & it has failed people go to shamans
form of imitation magic; mistreatment of doll-like image of person will cause injury to that person voodoo doll
form of imitation magic; original sin washed away w/ holy water baptism
from purely materialistic point of view world appears to lack any purpose or meaning objective point of view
fruits of harvest, animal lives, human lives, & changes in behaviors are offered as sacrifices
fundamentalists are selective about which parts of their tradition they __ & which parts of __ they accept & reject emphasize; modernity
fundamentalists tend to __ opposition has appropriate tactic demonize
fundamentalists tend to believe that there is __ __ __ & that they can posses & understand it single unified truth
fundamentalists tend to perceive themselves as __ __ even when it is not case persecuted minority
fundamentalists tend to see religion as basis for __ & __ identity personal; communal
fundamentalists tend to see themselves as fighting in __ __ of good against evil cosmic struggle
god is spiritual being who __ or __ some aspect of the world created; controls
gods distant/withdrawn, having little interest in people; accessible only through prayer to lesser gods remote gods
gods understood as creator of world & as ultimate power in it; present in only ½ of all societies high gods
government agents were __ by Ghost dance & Sioux belief that whites would shortly __ frightened; disappear
had about 3.5 million members in 1960 but had fallen to about 2 million by 2000 Episcopal Church
hair & doorways are __ __ that play important roles in religious rituals liminal objects
hallucinogenic drugs & bloodletting are methods that created __ __ in which travel to supernatural underworld would take place in ancient Maya states ecstatic states
has distinct attributes & believed to control specific aspect of human life, in Santeria oricha-saint
has never been demonstrated by convincing scientific experiments efficacy of prayer & magic
have repeatedly been implicated in murderous violence fundamentalist beliefs
herding & farming society in Mali W Africa, show lack of regard for their children, describing them as not at all nice, ugly, or useless Fulani
high levels of __ __ are often linked to poverty, land scarcity, migration, & loss of culture population growth
home to most complex Buddhist city on earth Los Angeles, CA
hunt caribou on Labrador Peninsula use scapulomancy Naskapi
identified w/St Francis of Assisi & believed to know each person’s destiny & can provide guidance about how to improve one’s fate Orunmila
identify what is wrong w/world, present vision of what better world might look like, & describe method of transition from existing to better world prophet code
images of way correct, just social order should look vision of ideal society
in 1970s members of __religions accounted for less than 1% of US populations non-Judeo-Christian
in Melanesian society __ knowledge & __ action were major sources of power secret; ritual
in Trinidad, points out that farmer may have never seen di/ landlord but knows of people whose crops have failed or people who have been evicted Morton Klass
in US, rapid cultural/economic change, economic oppression, powerlessness, & anomie experienced by different social groups have frequently led to new religious movements
in __ societies elite invoke __ __ to control poor stratified; religious authority
in all societies, there are individuals who are particularly expert in __ __ __ practice of religion
in holiness church services, loud music, singing & dancing cause some members to experience being filled w/ Holy Spirit
in holiness church, members that are filled w/ Holy Spirit sometimes handle poisonous snakes
in many African nations women have between 6-7 children, exemplifying high rates of population growth in preindustrial & industrializing societies
in many cultures worldwide, much of prayer & magic concerns __ __ or __ it in others curing disease; creating
in poorer nations, __ __ __ is linked to reducing high rate of child mortality & improving economic conditions reducing family size
in reality, people in __ statuses may experience unity of communitas more than __ higher; powerless
in reinforcing __ __ religion generally serves interests of __ social order; powerful
in rituals people behave in ways that would clearly be __ under other circumstances unacceptable
in some way, all gods are aspects of one divine essence India
in some ways, it is __ to use term myth, when describing sacred narratives or stories appropriate
incl abstinence from alcohol, attentiveness to family obligations, marital fidelity, self-support, helpfulness among members of group, & attempt to live at peace w/all peoples elements of Peyote Road
individual who is socially recognized as having ability to mediate between world of humanity & world of gods/spirits but who is not recognized official of any religious organization shaman
initiation rites usually include __ of information about cultural practices & tradition transmission
institutionalized liminal statuses sometimes emerge in state-level societies
intensifies social solidarity by creating atmosphere in which people experience their common identity in emotionally moving ways religious ritual
key trickster spirit Coyote Native American culture
less predictable the __ is the greater likelihood prayer, magic, & sacrifice will be __ outcome; used
like all other aspects of culture, religions are __ __ __ subject to change
liminal groups’ source of supernatural power & perceived subversion of social order is their low statuses & ambiguous nature
long-standing Israeli-Palestinian conflict gave rise to Hamas
looking toward creation of utopian future that does not resemble past golden age vitalism
love between divine Krishna & gopis most popular representation of communion w/god from Hinduism
magic is belief that certain words, actions, & states of mind compel __ to behave in __ ways supernatural; predictable
magical technique of sorcerers in Melanesia; sorcerer makes magical arrow of pointed object, catches sight of victim, then viciously stabs air as if to wound victim & twist point in wound bone pointing
majority of Wiccans & neopagans live in __ __ of Europe & N America wealthy nations
majority of Wiccans are __ & __ than average age level of __ female; higher; education
mana gives one spiritual__, but can also be __ power; dangerous
mana is like __ it is powerful force but can be __ when not approached w/ proper caution electricity; dangerous
mana most often found in spacial, temporal, verbal, or physical areas that are __ between clear-cut categories boundaries
mana often associated w/ elaborate system of __, or __ taboos; prohibitions
many modern-day Wiccans practice pre-Christian religion of __ __ nature worship
many religious movements are either __ or __ nativistic; vitalistic
many religious practices are aimed at __ in human activities success
masks, statues, paintings, costumes, body decorations, or objects in physical environment may be used as religious symbols
meaning death, love, sacrifice, identity, history, power, weakness, wealth, poverty, etc. Christian cross
meanings that religion creates can be __ wilderness or __ & destruction chaotic; violence
member of new religion that claims descent from pre-Christian nature worship Wiccan (or neopagan)
member participate in rituals that give individuals direct access to supernatural power; may experience states of ecstasy heightening by singing, dancing, handling dangerous objects, or using drugs messianic & millenarian religions
membership in American Christian denominations that describe themselves as __ has ballooned in past (2) decades fundamentalists
men often attained high positions because of their family/political connections rather than their piety or training medieval/renaissance churches in Europe
merging of elements of 2+ religious traditions to produce new religion syncretism
modern-day anthropologists are more concerned w/ways in which religion __ __ societies & ways in which it __ __ in human life operates in; creates meaning
monkey & hyena spirits often tricksters African religions
moral principles followed by members of Native American Church Peyote Road
most of religion __ society validates
most of time, religion is __ __ validating & reinforcing historical conditions & beliefs of society conservative force
most people from industrialized societies would say that sacrifices, in religion of Trinidad, to di are part of __ __ & rent payment are part of __ __ supernatural world; natural world
most radical interpretation of Ghost dance; vision promised disappearance of oppressors & return to traditional ways extremely appealing; spread amongst during fall of 1890 Sioux
most religions contain __ or __ visions of __ society implicit; explicit; ideal
most religious rituals involve combination of prayer, sacrifice, & magic to __ & __ supernatural spirits & powers contact; control
most scholars believe Gardner composed his religion from __ of modern day sources variety
much fundamentalism is __ presenting call to __ & return to time that is __ __ nativistic; purification; more holy
myth can also be used to denote __ belief, or __ belief, that we do not share false; religious
named spirit who is believed to have created or to control some aspect of world god
nativistic movement aims to restore what its followers believe is __ __ of past golden age
nonempirical/supernatural beings associated w/features of natural environment naturalistic
nonempirical/supernatural beings have features of personality similar to those of humans’ anthropopsychic
nonempirical/supernatural beings in form of animal zoomorphic
nonempirical/supernatural beings in human form anthropomorphic
notes that professional baseball players are likely to use magic for least predictable aspects of game, hitting, & pitching George Gmelch
notion that all objects, living & nonliving, are imbued w/ spirits animism
number of Americans who say they attend church regularly has __ __ since 1950 increased substantially
objects, places, people, & statuses understood as existing in indeterminate state, between clear-cut categories liminal
offering made to increase efficacy of prayer or religious purity of an individual sacrifice
often found among deeply oppressed people religious syncretism
one is likely to claim that their own religion is composed of __ & __ __, but other people have __ history; sacred story; myth
one that involves use of religious symbols; may involve acting out of sacred stories, music, dance, or pain to move worshipers’ to ecstatic state of trance religious rituals
one who is formally elected or appointed to full-time religious office priest
organizations where people live permanently as members of religious community; embody liminality monasteries & convents
origin Jamaica in 1930s; emphasized traditional African values; return to Africa Rastafari religion
participate in ritual largely as passive respondents or audience rather than as managers or performers laypeople
patterned act that involves manipulation of religious symbols ritual
people are witches because their bodies contain __ __ substance, which is inherited magical witchcraft
people continued Ghost Dance into 1930s & (1) group continued into 1960s Oklahoma
people grouped into societies/lodges each of which is linked w/some species in their natural environment that it its totem; prohibited from eating groups’ totem Aboriginal society
people of upper Asaro River in Papua New Guinea-when child is born, __ __is buried so it cannot be later used by sorcerer to cause harm umbilical cord
people pray by hoisting flags/spinning wheels w/prayers written inside them Buddhist
personification of evil; trickster Christian Devil
pointed out there is intimate connection between sacred tales of society & its ritual acts, moral deeds, & social organization Malinowski
poor & powerless in society may create religions in order to __ their lower social position & emphasize __ in which their suffering will be rewarded rationalize; afterlife
powerless may use liminal symbols & rituals of __ to subvert social order, expressing feelings of not oneness but of __ w/ powerful reversal; conflict
practice common among many Native American groups in which individuals seek to achieve direct contact w/supernatural vision quest
practice of divination makes people __ __ in their choices when they do not have all info they need/when alternative courses of action appear equal more confident
prayer & magic are prevalent in sports & games of chance
prayer & magic may alter __ __ of those who practice them or who are practiced upon, reducing/increasing their __ & perhaps creating other psychological states emotional state; anxiety
priests are most often associated with __ who are believed to have __ __ gods; great power
priests were members of ranked bureaucracy; also political leaders & such exercised right to use ecstatic techniques to travel in spiritual world ancient Maya states
programs to educate Fulani about family planning, fertility, & conception will fail because of their beliefs, which are intended to counter __ __ of children frequent deaths
prophecies sometimes encourage people to invest themselves in purely __ __ that have little real effect on social order magical practices
prophetic movements of Handsome Lake, Delaware Prophet, Shawnee Prophet, & Ghost Dance are examples of Native American religious movements
provide pathway through which Native Americans can operate successfully in mainstream American society; communion w/God possible through use of peyote & rituals around it separates them from other Americans & allows them to affirm their identity teachings of Native American Church
provide rationale for present social order & give social values sacred value sacred stories & rituals
provided new lives for followers, giving them consistent & meaningful ways of understanding world; led to deaths of them & followers Jim Jones & David Koresh
provides particularly good example of religious innovation history of native N America
rapid change w/in society or groups systematically enslaved/oppressed can cause “ideal vision” to __ __ __ people’s daily lives move away from
rate of woman having children is between 1-2/woman Canada, Italy, & Spain
religion believers organize their lives around series of __, encapsulated in story, symbol, & interpretation principles
religion can provide new identity & become basis for personal/cultural survival when people suffer profound __ __ or when life __ __ because of radically changed circumstances personal losses; loses meaning
religion is an important __ __, inculcating values, & understanding central to culture educational institution
religion is closely connected with __ of society & generally works to preserve __ __ survival; social order
religion is generally source that __ __ __ preserves social order
religion is normally conservative force promoting idea that way society has historically been ordered is __ & __ right; proper
religion is principle means that people have used to give one's life meaning historically & cross-culturally
religion may __ & __ status quo promote; reinforce
religion may be an important force resisting __ __ or may catalyze __ __ & on occasion, murder status quo; radical politics
religion may make people profoundly __ & __ disquiet; fearful
religion may provide __ & __ in people's lives meaning; order
religion may reduce __ __ & give people sense of __ over their destinies social anxiety; control
religions also present __ of states, qualities, or powers whose existence cannot be __ measured existence; scientifically
religions are __ __ of reality that serve as framework for interpreting events & experiences symbolic images
religions are composed of __ that members belief are important stories
religions include __ & __ __ of addressing supernatural rituals; specific means
religions known for focus on rituals that involve use of magic to acquire consumer goods cargo cults
religions make extensive of __ & __ symbols; symbolism
religions propose __ of beings, powers, states, places & qualities that cannot be measured by any agreed upon __ __ existence; scientific means
religions provide __ which give __ to lives of believers cosmologies; meanings
religions provide people w/sense of __ __, __, & __ by defining place of individual in society & through establishment of moral codes personal identity; belonging; meaning
religions that involved denying physical reality &/or importance of material world, to point of suicidal individual/group action Jonestown & Haven's Gate branch of Davidians
religious beliefs often include notion of __ __ __ that infuses universe impersonal spiritual force
religious power or energy that is concentrated in individuals or objects mana
religious practices centered around animals, plants/other aspects of natural world held to be ancestral/to have other intimate relationships w/members of group totemism
religious revitalization movement among Native Americans; between 250,000-500,000 members in US & Canada Native American Church
religious ritual performed to find hidden objects or information divination
religious symbols are __ multivalent inherently
religious symbols do not have __ __ for all members of religion single meaning
reserved for specific ceremonies, times of illness, or crisis shamanic activities
rites of __ & __ are found in almost all cultures passage; intensification
rites of intensification direct toward __ of group/community rather than individual welfare
ritual __ __ include class as well as gender role reversal
ritual structured to reinforce values & norms of community & to strengthen group identity rite of intensification
ritual that moves an individual from one social status to another rite of passage
ritual transvestism where community members dance in clothing of people of opposite sex Japanese festivals
sacred narratives are often clothed in __ & often __ language poetic; esoteric
sacred narratives are powerful ways of communicating __ ideas religious
sacred power of sacred narratives is evoked when they are __ or __ __ told; acted out
sacred stories or narratives myths
saw religion as beginning w/animism & evolving through polytheism to monotheism EB Tylor
scapulomancy may be __ because it randomizes choices of hunting sites, strategy modern game theorists know results in least chance of __ __ adaptive; repeated failure
sciences can neither __ nor __ existence of god prove; disprove
search for Truth; quality whose objective description has eluded philosophers for millenia Society for Ethical Humanism
second phase of rite of passage,-often characterized by liminality transition
separate inside from outside; serves as symbols of moral categories of good/evil, pure/impure doorways & gates
sexual ambiguity contains power both to bless & to curse hijras
shaman travels into supernatural world to discover source of illness & what might be done to cure it shamanic curing
shamanic curing ceremonies are __ in that they release anxiety caused by various disturbing events cathartic
shamanic curing ritual uses story, symbolism, & dramatic action to bring together cultural beliefs & religious practices in way enables patient to understand source of illness
shamans generally treat their patients with drugs
shift from high to low rates of fertility demographic transition
small, hallucinogenic cactus that only grows in S TX & N Mexico & used by those indigenous people until late 19th century when spread out peyote
snake handling, faith healing, & glossolalia, in holiness churches, are daily demonstrations of their ability to gain access to God
social institution characterized by sacred stories; symbols & symbolism; proposed existence of immeasurable beings, powers, states, places, & qualities; rituals & means of addressing supernatural; specific practitioners; & change religion
socially sanctioned use of behavior that radically violates social norms antistructure
some expert believe that part of demographic transition is basic understanding of mathematics
some experts argue that because in many societies people do not __ they do not believe they have control over size of family, # of children women have, or # children they desire count
some fundamentalism of various kinds seem to hold promise for __ & __ stability; security
sometimes prophets call on their followers to pursue their goals through __ or __ means, which may result in rapid __ change political; military; social
sometimes religions involve denying __ __ or importance of __ world physical reality; material
souls of bear, caribou, & seal important; soul of animal killed must receive proper religious attention Netsilik Inuit
speaking in tongues glossolalia
specific __ __ play extremely important role in emergence of fundamentalism local histories
spread of __ __ __ largely to efforts of Comanche, Kiowa, & Caddo leaders, incl Quannah Parker, Apiaton (Wooden Lance), & John Wilson modern peyote ceremony
state of being that is not subject to measurement & verification in Hinduism Enlightenment
state of perceived solidarity, equality, & unity among people sharing religious ritual, often characterized by intense emotion communitas
stories held to be holy & true by members of religious tradition sacred narratives
supernatural entity that does not act in best interests of humans trickster
survivor of Nazi death camps, found those (in death camps) whose lives retained meaning were more likely to retain their sanity & survive than those who lacked meaning Victor Frankl
symbolizes New Testament story of Last Supper Christian ritual of communion service
system of beliefs that deals w/fundamental questions in religious & social order cosmology
tarot cards, palmistry, flipping coins, & reading auras are all divination techniques
taught God was accessible to Indians through sacraments of peyote; leaders called Roadmen
taught Hopi to treat earth respectfully, as relative, & techniques for farming blue corn were established by Maasaw
taught that arrival of paradise could be hastened by specific rituals, incl series of dances Wodziwab & Wovoka
telling of sacred stories __, social tradition & __ solidarity reinforce; enhance
tend to have specific original leaders & points of origin; members often see their religious beliefs as unchanging fundamentalist movements
function of myth is to strengthen __ & __ it w/ greater value & prestige by tracing it back to better, more __ __ of initial events tradition; endow; supernatural reality
spirits in Trinidad religion di
third stage of right of passage-passage from one status to another is symbolically completes reincorporation
through growing of blue corn __ re-experience creation of their world Hopi
through religion humans __ __ & meaning on their world & often gain feeling they have some measure of __ over it impose order; control
through religion supernatural beliefs about __ & __ are reinforced by supernatural means of __ __ good; evil; social control
through religious beliefs in glorious future or coming of savior, __ people can create a(n) __ of power powerless; illusion
through religious beliefs in glorious future or coming of savior, religion contributes __ to maintaining social order indirectly
through religious beliefs in glorious future or coming of savior, religion provides __ for frustration, resentment, & anger outlet
through rites of intensification, community maintains __ w/ past, __ feeling of social unity in present, & __ sentiments on which cohesion is dependent continuity; enhances; renews
timing & particular beliefs of religious movements are closely tied to __ & __ __ of their followers social; political positions
to be shaman one must direct __ __ of supernatural that other members of community accept as __ personal experiences; authentic
to begin new religion or create substantial modification to existing religion, prophets must have a(n) __ that consists of at least (3) elements code
today 96% of Americans say they believe in God
told Lowie interpretation that spirits making them vulnerable Crow Indians
totemism is prominent feature of religions of Australian aborigines
tricksters are often __ but they themselves are often __ powerful; fooled
tricksters often __ __ of greed, lust, & envy w/humor & wisdom combine attributes
two of most common __ __ are imitation & contagion magical practices
vast majority of people who might be classified as fundamentalists are __ they neither promote/condone __ innocent; violence
visions of Ghost Dance prophets were directly related to expansion of __ power Euro-American
vitalists’ believe golden age is in __ & can be achieved by following teachings of __ future; prophet
vitalists’ see past as either __ or __ evil; neutral
we should apply same __ to others' religious beliefs that we apply to our own terminology
when calamities fell or their prayers were not answered people vented their anger against gods by saying “You are a great slave” NW Coastal Tribes of N America
when image of social order by religion fails to correspond to daily experiences of its followers __ may emerge, who create new religious __ or call for __ of existing practices prophets; ideas; purification
when people feel they are lost, their vision of ideal cannot be attained, or in light of new developments ideal vision is wrong __ may emerge & __ __ created prophets; new religions
where they exist, they frequently have low status & ambiguous nature liminal groups
witchcraft is practice of __ sorcery
work by cultivating awareness that one’s body is located at central intersection w/in system of relations shamanic curing ceremonies
wrote rituals frequently generate liminal states & statuses in which structured & hierarchical classifications normally separating people in groups are dissolved Victor Turner
Created by: lfrancois
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