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Philosophy Exam 1


knowledge justified true belief
aseity one, absolute, not derived
theism personal relationship (ex: greek gods)
monotheism being not contingent, derived from, or limited by any other
theism personal relationship (ex: greek gods)
monotheism being not contingent, derived from, or limited by any other
ethical monotheism
Burden of Proof person who comes up w/ belief has responsibility of providing proof
"Russel's teapot" teapot orbiting sun: no evidence there is/no evidence there isn't.
Angelina Jolie Ex. "Angelina Jolie loves me" & behavior is irrelevant to whether or not she loves me. But relevance is 2-way: behavior is relevant to prove existence
Definition of God -title, not a name. -being that deserves worship
Religion roots lig- to tie, re- do again
Cosmological Argument if there is anything in existence, there must be a self-existent/necessary being; world is not empty void
Argument from Design (Teleological Argument) apparent design & order in world: global (whole) & local (specific)
Ontological Argument very concept of such a being means it exists
Hume basics 1. something exists rather than nothing 2. reason for everything 3. nothing self-existent
Paley watch & stone ex.
Descartes basics eternal existence:nature of God. God's existence doesn't depend on our mind capacity
Anselm vs. Descartes Anselm: what YOU think Descartes:God exists whether you think or not
Ontological Arguments: Pros & Cons Anselm:Guanilo, Kant, Circularity Aquinas (1-4): Russel, Aggregate Argument
Anselm - the essential quality of God is perfection: the best possible thing - there can be no greater thing than God - can’t think of anything greater than God; impossible
Aggregate Version Criticism If God is necessary, then “creation moment” necessary, so the world must be necessary. However started out with the assumption that world not necessary; only God necessary. So if that false if world not necessary then all other necessary things false too.
a priori prior to experience
a posteriori post experience
reductio ad Absurdum eliminate the false
"existence in the mind" you can imagine something, but it doesn’t actually exist ex: Santa, unicorns
"existence independent of mind" you can imagine it and it exists outside of your mind; it is real
Guanilo's Lost Island Objection - following Anselm’s idea, we can imagine the perfect island to which no island is greater, therefore; the perfect island must exist. - this, however; is not true. the perfect island does not exist.
Kant’s “Existence is not a predicate” - existence is not a property that a subject can have - existence is not an adjective or descriptive - either something exists or it doesn’t
The Circularity Objection - we can’t know the truth of the assumption/premise without first knowing the conclusion is true. "God has all perfections" assumes God exists "If anything is a God" accurate; then it exists
Aquinas 1st Way "First Mover"
Aquinas 2nd Way "Caused"
Aquinas 3rd Way "Necessary Being"
Aquinas 4th Way "Plato's Logic"
Aquinas 5th Way teleological argument (from design)
"First Mover" 1. Things move. 2. If anything moves, then its movement is caused by something other than itself. 3. It’s impossible for the chain of events to go back infinitely far. 4. There must be a first mover to cause things to move.
"Caused" 1. Things are caused. 2. If anything is caused, then it is caused by something other than itself. 3. Cannot go back infinitely far. 4. Therefore; there is a 1st cause in the chain. (something to cause everything else)
"Necessary Being" STAGE ONE 1. Everything is perishable. 2. If everything pass away, then in past, nothing would’ve existed. 3. If in past nothing existed, then nothing would exist now. (can’t get something outta nothin) 4. so nothing exists now. The 4 statement false so 1 fa
"Necessary Being" STAGE TWO 5. has to be atleast one nec. thing (that always been in existence & has to exist 4 anythin else to exist now) 6. each nec. thing either caused by another nec. thing or nec. in itself 7. nec. being not caused by another nec. being b/c then no longer nec
Russel Criticism of Ontological 1. rest need be explained 2. exceptions to rule for God 3. infinite string? 4. 1st mover doesn't have to be God
Teleological Argument Criticisms 1. yes intelligent designer but not necessarily God 2. EVERYTHING DESIGNED- rocks&clocks-we can't recognize design then 3. also evidence against intelligent design: natural disasters imperfection/ not work well Panda's thumb
Pascal's Wager -rational to believe in God - expected utility greater than cost, dumb not to risk
Pascal Wager Criticism - not true belief= no reward - many gods objection - principle of prudential rationality breaks down: percentage gain may outweigh cost, but potential loss is too great
Clifford- Ethics of Belief - duty to question belief -duty not to harm - bad habits (if you believe w/out evidence, then you'll believe all things w/out evidence) - self interest (don't be the fool; good for you to have evidence)
James' Response to Pascal&Clifford option genuine if living, momentous, and forced against Pascal: some options dead against Clifford: no risk-taking. might miss out on truth; can't always wait on truth
James- Will to Believe a) best things are eternal (God) b) best to believe in eternal (God) Examples: alpine climber, marriage proposal, train robbery
Criticism to James just b/c you want it to exist, doesn't mean it does can't count on divine benefits, only here-and-now benefits like community
BROAD Religious Experience 1 music analogy 2 3 questions (psych? plausible? true?) 3 can't criticize if u haven't exp. 4 common nucleus 5 either reality or delusion 6 rel. exp. like blind community w/ someone who sees 7 no reason to doubt them
Criticisms to Broad - is there a common nucleus? - helpful? divine intervention?
MacIntyre Religious Experience feeling states vs. visions only visions count as exp.= seen things are evidence of unseen things
Criticism to MacIntyre see smoke:fire see rail signals: train see angel: God present XXX only know 1st/ we have seen the other 2 ex. together
Problem of Evil either God doesn't care or God can't stop it - God's omnipotence - God's onmibenevolence - bad stuff the 3 can't exist together
Mackie & Prob. of Evil can't find solution
Hick & Prob. of Evil "soul making" Earth only temporary to build character; not complete on earth
Created by: penpencil22