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Chapters 4-5

List the three conditions that must exist for the total body syndrome to occur. An organ must have been exposed acutely in matter of seconds or minutes, there must be exposure of the total body area and external penetrating sources.
Explain the LD 50/30 by defining and listing the dose for humans in comparison to goldfish. LD 50/30 is the survival time of a specific group. The lethal dose to kill 50% of a population in 30 days. Humans: 250-450 rads. Goldfish: 2,000 rads.
State the LD 50/60 for humans. Humans: 250-300 rads.
Hemopoietic: State the dose needed to exhibit these symptoms and the explain the damage: 100-1,000 R. Damage to bone marrow by reduction in red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.
Gastrointestinal (GI): State the dose needed to exhibit these symptoms and the explain the damage: 600-10,000 R. Damage to GI tract and bone marrow includes depletion of villi cells and dehydration and electrolyte imbalance.
Central nervous system (CNS) state the dose needed to exhibit symptoms: 5,000-10,000 R and up.
Discuss the events of the following stages of the acute radiation syndrome: Prodomal Stage: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.
Discuss the events of the following stages of the acute radiation syndrome: Latent stage: This stage appears to have no symptoms when in reality changes are taking place that will either lead to recovery or death.
Discuss the events of the following stages of the acute radiation syndrome: Manifest stage: After the latent stage the subject will become noticeable ill, showing signs and symptoms reflecting the organ system that was damaged.
Discuss the events of the following stages of the acute radiation syndrome: 4th stage: The subject either recovers or dies.
Define Cytopenia: Depression of all blood cell counts.
Define Anemia: Reduction in red blood cell counts.
Define Crypts of Lieberkuhn: Radiosensitive cells that are a precursor to the population of villi cells.
Define Edema: Swelling.
Define Vasculitis: Inflammation of blood cells.
Define Meningitis: Inflammation of the membranes of the spinal cord and brain.
Define Atrophy: Shrinking.
Define Desquamation: Peeling skin.
Define Necrosis: Tissue death.
Define Alopecia: Hair loss.
State the SED 50 for humans and the type of dose response relationship for this factor. 600 rad, that follows a nonlinear, threshold dose-response relationship.
Identify the approximate radiation doses need to produce Temporary sterility: 200-250 rads.
Identify the approximate radiation doses need to produce permanent sterility: 500-600 rads.
Identify the approximate radiation doses need to restrain menstruation: 10 rads.
Hemopoietic system includes: Bone marrow, circulating blood, lymph nodes, spleen and thymus gland.
Describe the location and function of red bone marrow: Contains stems cells and some fat cells is located in the ribs, ends of long bones, vertebrae, sternum, and skull. It also supplies mature functional cells to circulating blood.
Describe the location and function of yellow bone marrow: high in fat content, does not actively deliver mature cells to the circulating blood.
State the three possible structural changes to the chromosomes that may occur after irradiation of cells. aberrations, lesions, or anomalies.
Describe the purpose of a karotype. Cytogenetic analysis of chromosomes.
Discuss the difference between somatic and genetic mutations. Somatic mutations have consequences only for the subject. Genetic mutations can affect the subjects gametes which may affect future generations.
List several groups of individuals that have been studied to determine long term effects of radiation exposure. Atomic bomb survivors, medically exposed patients, occupationally exposed personnel, populations that recieve high natural background exposure.
State several examples of radiation induced malignancies: Leukemia, skin carcinoma, thyroid cancer, breast cancer, osteoscarcoma and lung cancer.
Define GSD: Genetically signifcant dose (GSD) An average calculation from the gonadal dose recieved by the entire population and used to determine the genetic influence of low dose to the whole population.
Define doubling dose: The dose of radiation required per generation to double the spontaneous mutation rate.
List the factors that will influence the embryo’s irradiation responses. Total dose, rate of dose, quality of radiation, stage of development.
State the possible effects of irradiation to the fetus. Prenatal or neonatal death, congenital abnormalities, growth impairment, reduced intelligence, genetic abnormalities, cancer induction.
Stochastic Effects- occur randomly in nature. Aka, statisical response in which the probability of occurence increases with dose.
Nonstochastic Effects Deterministic.
Explain radiation hormesis. The theory that ionizing radiation is benign at low levels of exposure, and that doses at the level of natural background radiation can be benificial.
List the following in order starting with the most radiosensitive: Myelocytes, ,megakaryocytes, erythrocytes. erythrocytes, myelocytes, megakaryocytes.
Created by: Stee0015