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Chapters 1-3

List the first 2 laws of Bergonie and Tribondeau. ~Stem or immature cells are most sensitive compared to mature cells. ~Younger tissues and organs are more sensitive than older tissues/organs.
Direct Effects Caused by what? Describe point of origin. Caused by direct ionization along charge particle tracks. Original ionization occurs directly on target molecule.
Indirect Effects- Caused by? Point of origin? Caused by the formation of free radicals. Original ionization occurs with water and transfers ionization to target molecule.
Define 'Free Radicals.' unpaired electrons that are highly reactive. They are able to diffuse through the cell and interact at a distant site.
Define epilation: Hair loss.
Define Erythema dose: Reddening of the skin.
Define Ionization: The process of removing electrons from atoms or molecules.
List the last 2 laws of Bergonie and Tribondeau. ~The Higher metabolic cell activity, the more radiosensitive it is. ~The greater growth rate for tissues, the greater the radiosensitivity. ~The greater growth rate for tissues,greater the radiosensitivity.
Define: Mutagenesis The causing of genetic mutation by radiation.
Fractionation: Smaller doses of radiation spread out over a period of time is better than one large dose session. This is the fractionation theory that causes less damage to tissues. (time period between doses)
Protraction: Is the time during which a course of radiation is administered over a longer period of time.
ID the SI units for the traditional unit: Roentgen (R): SI Unit: coulomb/kilogram
ID the SI units for the traditional unit: Rad (r): SI Unit: Gray
ID the SI units for the traditional unit: Rem (r): SI Unit: sievert
ID the SI units for the traditional unit: Curie (Ci): SI Unit: becquerel
Relate the effective dose limits as stated in NCRP Report No. 116 for the following groups: Occupational exposure: General public continuous exposure: Occupational exposure: 5 rem/year. General public continuous exposure: 0.5 rem/year.
State the function of Water: Solvent, Transport medium, Lubricant for joints and digestive tract, regulates body temperature through evaporation and cushions organs like the brain and lungs.
State the function of Proteins: Assist in growth, construct new tissues and repair damaged or worn out tissues.
State the function of Amino acids: Act as building blocks of proteins.
State the function of Enzymes: They Control the numerous chemical reactions that occur in the cells, provide cell energy, help make new cell parts and control cell process.
State the function of Lipids: Stores energy, insulates the body, assists in digestive process and helps lubricate joints.
State the function of Carbohydrates: Major source of cell energy.
State the function of Nucleic acids: Organic Compounds that contain carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and phosphorus.
Describe the function of inorganic compounds such as sodium and potassium. Sodium and potassium maintain osmotic pressure of the cell by maintaining the correct proportion of water in the cell. Salts also assist in producing cell energy and conducting nerve impulses.
Describe the function and components of Cell membrane: Functions to separate the cell’s interior from its exterior surroundings. It is composed of lipids and proteins.
Describe the function and components of Cytoplasm: Composed of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, mineral salts and water. It functions as a suspension for organelles.
Describe the function and components of organelles: Helps with cell functions.Includes the centrioles, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, golgi apparatus, lysosomes and the nucleus.
Describe the function and components of Centrioles: A pair of cylindrical organelles located near the nucleus. They organize the spindle fibers during cell mitosis.
Describe the function and components of ER: ER: Assists in channeling proteins and lipids into and out of the nucleus. Some ER serves as storage areas. There are smooth and rough ER. Rough ER has ribosomes. Smooth ER does not have ribosomes.
Describe the function and components of Mitochondria: Contains double membrane that has enzymes which assist in breaking down carbohydrates, fat, and proteins into energy stored in the cell as ATP. Aerobic reactions of cell respiration takes place in the mitochondria, or “power house” of the cell.
Describe the function and components of Golgi apparatus: A series of flat, membranous layers that contain carbohydrates.It handles incoming lipids and proteins.
Describe the function and components of Lysosomes: Single membrane bodies that contain digestive enzymes that digest protein molecules. They also assist in digesting old cell parts, dead cell parts, bacteria, and foreign materials.
Describe the function and components of the Nucleus: The brain for the cell’s metabolic activity and cell division. The structure is surrounded by a double layered membrane DNA and protein are contained within this structure.
Describe the function and components of Nucleolus: Each nucleus contains atleast one of these structures that contains ribosomes.
Describe the function and components of Ribosomes: Composed of RNA and protein. travel from the nucleus into the cytoplasm and assist in protein synthesis.
State the location of both the following: DNA: RNA: DNA: Nucleus. RNA: Ribosomes of the nucleolus.
Explain the purpose of Chromosomes: Gene carriers.
Explain the purpose of Centromere: The center of a chromosome where it keeps the two sister chromatids together. It’s also where the chromosome attaches to the spindle apparatus during mitosis and meiosis.
Explain the purpose of Genes: Genetic material responsible for cytoplasmic activity and delivering hereditary information.
Define Gametes or aka: Reproductive cells. Aka germ cells.
Define Somatic cells: Non-reproductive cells.
Explain Mitosis: A eukaryotic cell divides the chromosomes into two identical sets of two daughter nuclei in its cell nucleus. It is followed by cytokinesis that equally divides the nuclei, cytoplasm, organelles and cell membrane into two daughter cells.
Mitosis takes place within what kind of cells? takes place within somatic cells.
What is Meiosis: A process of cell division in which the number of chromosomes per cell is halved.
Meiosis takes place in what kind of cells? takes place within gamete cells (sex cells).
Describe the segment of the cell cycle known as interphase, ID the four phases: G1, S, G2, M.
Describe G1: Cells in this phase are performing the physiological needs to maintain cell homeostasis. The cell is not yet undergoing visible phases of mitosis.
Describe S: DNA replication.
Describe G2: Growth and preparation for mitosis.
Describe M: Cell division of mitosis begins.
State several other names for immature cells. Undifferentiated, precursor, or stem cells.
Define Radiosensitivity: The amount of reaction of a cell to radiation.
Define Radioresistant: Having no reaction of exposure to radiation.
Give examples of cells that are highly radiosensitive: Lymphocytes, spermatogonia, erythroblasts, intestinal crypt cells.
Give examples of cells that have intermediate radiosensitivity: Endothelial cells, osteoblasts, spermatids and fibroblasts.
Give examples of cells that have low radiosensitivity: Muscle and nerve cells, and chondrocytes.
Compare the sensitivity; nucleus vs. cytoplasm: The nucleus of a cell is considerably more radiosensitive to radation than the cytoplasm of the cell.
Compare the sensitivity; DNA vs. RNA vs. protein: DNA is the most radiosensitive compared to both RNA and protein. Then RNA is the next sensitive, and then protein.
What stage of mitosis is considered the most radiosensitive? Mitosis and the passage from late G1 into early S-phase are the phases considered most radiosensitive.
What stage of mitosis is the most radioresistant? The most radioresistant phase would include mid-to late S-phase.
List three possible events that may occur when a cell is irradiated. Slowing of cell mitosis, interphase death, and cell death.
Linear Energy Transfer (LET) Define this term: A measure of the rate at which energy is deposited as a charged particle travels through matter.
What kind of rays produce few interactions bc of their rapid moving electrons are regarded as low LET radiation? X- and gamma rays.
What kind of rays are highly ionizing and have a high chance to interact with tissue and are considered high LET radiation? Alpha and neutron rays.
Describe the relationship between LET and the chance for a biologic interaction to occur. The higher the LET of radiation the greater the chance for biologic interaction.
Summarize the concept of relative biologic effectiveness (RBE): A comparison of how effective types of radiation are compared with X and gamma rays.
The factors that will influence RBE: Factors that affect RBE include radiation type, tissue type, physiologic condition, biologic result being examined and the radiation dose rate
Describe the relationship between LET and RBE. As LET increases, RBE increases also; they are directly related.
Explain the concept of “oxygen enhancement ratio(OER): The response of biologic tissue to radiation is great when irradiated in the aerobic state, than in anoxic state. This concept is expressed numerically by the OER.
Explain the formula used to calculate the OER: The Ratio is the dose that produces a given biologic response under anoxic conditions divided by the dose that produces the same biologic response under aerobic conditions
State the amount of radiosensitivy of humans during various periods of life. We are most radiosensitive before birth. Radiosensitivity declines until maturity which is the time that we are the most radioresistant. With older age, humans become more radiosensitive again.
Direct Effect: Is a result of ionization and excitation, an interaction that happens directly on a critical biological macromolecule.
Indirect Effect: A cell interaction that occurs if the initial ionizing incident takes place on a distant noncritical molecule then transfers the ionization of energy to another molecule.
List the possible by-products of the radiolysis of water. H20 (goes back to water or nothing happens), Development of a free radical, or the production of hydrogen peroxide.
Based on observed results of irradiating macromolecules in the laboratory, list the three primary effects. Main-chain scission, cross-linking, and point lesions.
Identify the type of radiation damage that creates genetic (point) mutations and include the type of radiation it commonly occurs in. Point lesions. low LET radations, or x-ray or gamma rays.
Explain the function of a dose-response relationship curve. Graphically illustrates the relationship between observed effects from radiation and the dose of radiation received.
linear, nonthreshold: An observed response is directly proportional to the dose, assuming any radiation dose produces an effect.
linear, threshold: An observed response is directly proportional to the dose, assuming that there is a radiation level reached below which there would be no effects observed.
nonlinear, nonthreshold An observed response is not directly proportional to the dose, and assuming any radiation dose produces an effect.
nonlinear, threshold: An observed response is not directly proportional to the dose and assuming that there is a radiation level reached below which there would be no effects observed
Describe the concept of target theory and identify the critical molecular target in humans. According to the target theory, there will be cell death only if the cell’s target molecule is inactivated. DNA is said to be the critical molecular target.
Created by: Stee0015