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Psych 458

Adolescent Psychology Exam 2

QuestionAnswer
What are the origins of compulsory education in America? industrializaton (families could make ends meet without adolescent labor), urbanization (population overcrowding), and immigration
Over the decades (starting from the 70s), what school reform system was in place? 1970s - relevance; 1980s - back to basics (math, science, and reading); early 1990s - critical/higher-order thinking; late 1990s - rigorous academic standards (emphasize high tech training); today - standards based reform (No Child Left Behind)
What is the No Child Left Behind Act of 2002? a mandate that states all states ensure that all students, regardless of economic circumstances, achieve academic proficiency on standardized annual tests; schoo that repeatedly fail face losing funding or being forced to close
What is social promotion? advancing students egardless of their academic competence or performance
Why has school reform failed in urban schools? increasing concentration of poverty led to students with grave academic and behavioral problems; school districts are run by boards who are against reform; students have no sense of belonging to the school; job opportunities have eroded
What is the ideal size of a school? Between 500 and 1,000 students
Why are smaller schools better than larger schools? they provide a more intimate setting, promote participation in students (sports, clubs, student government)
Is classroom size a factor in the scholastic achievement of adolescents? No, students learn just as much in a class of 40 students as in a class of 20 students
What happens to students during the transition to middle/junior high school? school grades and academic motivation drops while scores on standardized tests stay the same
How can schools combat the negative transitions into middle/junior high school? reducing anonymity, hiring teachers with training in adolescent development, and stregthening ties between the school and the community
What is the difference in classroom environments in middle/junior high school and elementary school? in middle/junior high school, teachers believe that the student's intelligence is fixed, are less likely to trust their students and emphasize discipline and they are not confident in their own teaching abilities; schools are larger and less personal
What is tracking? separating students, by academic abilitiy, into different classes within the same school
What do critics argue are the problems with tracking in schools? students in the remedial track generally receive poorer quality education; students socialize only with peers from the same track (academic poor get poorer); difficulty changing tracks once in place, especially for minorities
How is gender discrimination prevalent in tracking? girls score higher on math tests in elementary school, yet are less likely to be placed in high math track
What is a gifted student? one who scores 130 o higher on the IQ test
What is the Big Fish-Little Pond effect? a phenomenon whereby individuals who attend high school with high-achieving peers feel wose about themselves than comparably successful individuals with lower-achieving peers; those with lower-achieving peers have better chances in college admissions
How does desegregation affect school achievement? it has little impact on adolescent achievement levels; african americans are more likely to graduate and continue education in college; minorities have higher self esteem in schools where they are the majority
Are private schools better than public schools? No, except for Catholic schools who place high priority on the intersection of values in school, the home, and the community
What is the most important factor in academic achievement? the climate of the classroom; teachers should be have authoritative parental qualities, interact with students, use class time, and influence learning
What does James Comer suggest through his development project? you can improve one's student achievement by changing the broader climate, not individual classrooms (add school planning and management team, social support team, and parent team)
How do colleges in United States compare to those in other countries? they are more diverse and accessible and they have wider variety of liberal arts, technical, vocational, and preprofessional schools
What do good schools look like? they emphasize intellectual activities, employ teachers who are committed, monitor students and the school to make changes, links with the community, and promote student participation in critical thinking
Diane Ravitch has what three beliefs about the interference of successful educational reform? schools can solve any social or political problem, only a portion of youngsters are capable of benefiting from a high-quality education, and imparting knowledge is unimportant...schools should focus on engaging students in activities and experiences
Who are the learning disabled? those whose actual perfomance is significantly pooer than their expected performance and whose difficulty with academic tasks cannot be traced to an emotional problem or sensory dysfunction
Today's typical teenager does what? spends more time on leisure than productive activities, spends more time alone than with family (prefers friends), and spends four times as many hours per week at a part-time job than homework
What led to more adolescent free time in contemporary society? post-world war II affluence
What are the characteristics of teen jobs? little/no contact with adults (employees & customers are teenagers, supervisor not much older), no independent behavior or decision making, little supervisor instruction, hardly any use of skills learned in school, repititious/boring, stressful, dangerous
What are the drawbacks of working during adolescence? premature affluence, decrease in school performance (absent more oftn, less involvement in extracurriculars, less enjoyment in school, less time on homework, and lower grades)
How is working associated with problem behavior? working long hours may be associated with increases in aggeression, school misconduct, precocious sexual activity and minor delinquency
Who is more susceptivle to problem behaviors resulting from adolescent work? middle class working teenagers
What group accounts for the majority of unemployed youth? high school dropouts
What are suggestions to combat youth unemployment? community service/service learning, strengthening youth organizations, and experimenting with youth apprenticeships
How will community service help adolescents? it will help integrate adolescents into the community, enhance their feelings of confidence and responsibility, and put them in touch with adult role models
What do teens spend their money on? Leisure activities; clothes, food, and cosmetics for girls; food, clothes, and saving for big ticketed items for guys
What are the five c's of positive youth development? competence, confidence, connection, character, and caring/compassion
What are the three basic schools of thought concerned media on adolescent development? cultivation theory (media shapes beliefs), uses and gratification approach (adolescent choose media), and media practice model (not only choose meddia, but also interpret media in ways that shape their impact)
What is reverse causation? when the correlation between two things is not due to the first thing causing the second, but to the reverse
What is spruious causation? when the correlation between two things is due to the fact that each of them is correlated with a third thing
What are the three different appoaches to how the individual's sense of identity changes over time? self-conceptions (collection of traits used to describe oneself), self-esteem (degree one feels positive about themselves), sense of identity (extent to which individuls feel secure about who they are and who they are becoming)
Why are there differences in rates of student employment between the United States and other industrialized countries? part-time opportunities are not as readily available, scheduling is not suited to fit around the daily routines of teenagers, there is a negative stigma associated with working, and there is more out of school time for homework
What is the routine active theory? a perspective on adolescene that views unstructured, unsupervised time with peers as a main cause of misbehavior
What is viral marketing? a way of promoting products or services by encouraging individuals to pass information on to others
What is the false-self behavior? behavior that intentionally presents a false impression to others
What is the five factor model? the theory that there are five basic dimensions to personality: extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience
What is barometric self-esteem? the aspect of self-esteem that fluctuates across situations?
What is baseline self-esteem? the aspect of self-esteem that is realatively stable across situations and over time
How do the genders differ in self-esteem? generally boys have more esteem that girls; the difference is pronounced among white an puerto rican teens, less pronounced among african-americans, but all differences become smaller over the course of adolescence
How does SES factor into self-esteem? the higher the SES, the higher the self-esteem
What the is the self-esteem difference between african american and white/hispanic girls? african american girls do not feel as negative about their appearance, have higher overall self-esteem, and show less of a decline in self-esteem over adolescence
Why is self-esteem high amongst african american girls? have support/positive feedback of adults in the african-american community, focus on areas of strength not weakness, and have a strong sense of ethnic identity that enhances self-esteen
Why is self-esteem low amongst hispanic american teens? lower levels of authoritative parenting, lower levels of perceived teacher support, weaker sense of ethnic identity, higher levels of family stress
Across all demographic groups, self-esteem is related to what? parental appoval, peer support, and success in school
Teens who derive self-esteem from peers rather than teachers or parents show what? more behavioral problems and poorer school achievement
What are the problems in identity development? identity diffusion (incomplete sense of self), identity foreclosure (bypassing peiord of exploraton and experimentation), and negative identity (identities undesirable to parents or community)
What are the four orientations for minority youth? assimilation (adopting culture's norms), marginality (living within majority but feeling outcsst), separation (associating only with those of own culture), and biculturalism (maintaining ties to majority and minority)
What are the aspects of the multidimensional model of racial identity? racial centrality (how important race is n defining identity), private regard (how you feel about being a member of race), and public regard (how you think that others view your race)
What is the gender intensification hypothesis? sex differences result from societal pressure to act instereotypically masculine/feminine ways
What kind of females and males report higher self-esteem than their peers? androgynous females and masculine males
What are the three aspects of self-image? self-esteem (how positively/negatively one feels about oneself), self-consciousness (how much one worries about their self-image), and self-image stability (how much one feels that their self-image changes from day to day)
What is Erikson's Theoretical framework? theory that a person mvoes through 8 psychosocial crises over the course of their life span, specifically in adolescence there is identity vs. identity diffusion (establishment of coherent sense of identity)
What is the key to solving the crisis of identity vs. identity diffusion? the adolescent's interactions with others; by responding to the reactions of peopole who matter, the adolescent picks/chooses from many elements that could become part of his adult identity
What is the psychosocial moratorium? a period where individuals are free from excessive obligatons and responsibilities, and can therefore experiement with different roles and personalities
What are the four categories of Marcia's measure? identity achievement (coherent sense of identity and has made commitments after crisis and experimentation), moratorium (midst of crisis and experimentation), identity foreclosure (made commitments but without crisis), identity diffusion (neither)
What is androgyny? the combination of both highly masculine and highly feminine traits
What are the four measures of emotional autonomy? extent to which one de-idealizes of parents, sees parents as people, maintains independence, and feels individuated within the relationship with parents
According to the psychoanalytic theory, why does one develop emotional autonomy? physical changes of puberty disrupt family system, resurgency of sexual impulses increase family tensions, detachment caused by emotional wedge between adolescents and parents
What triggers individuation? changes in teen's appearance provokes change in how teen views self and how prents view teen; this alters parent-adolescent interactions
What is individuation? the progessive sharpening of an individual's sense of being an autonomous, independent person
What is the first sign of individuation? the de-idealization of one's own parents
What does health individuation look like? close, not distant, family relationships, with adolescents encouraged to develop and assert their individuality
What groups of adolescents are most easily influenced by their friends, especially in antisocial contexts? adolescents with authoritarian and extremely permissive parents
What are Kohlber's three levels of moral reasoning? preconventional moral reasoning (worying about punishment/reward), conventional moral reasoning (following societal rules and norms), and postconventional moral reasoning (most abstract and advanced)
What has research shown about the correlation between moral behavior and moral reasoning? they do not always match; contextual factors influence how a person acts when facing moral dilemmas in the real world
What does Carol Gilligan think about Kohlberg's theory it is gender biased; women may use a care orientation to moral dilemmas and men may use a justice orientation (there is no research to support her argument, however)
What is justice orientation? In Gilligan's theory of moral development, a moral orientation that emphasizes fairness and objectivity
What is a case orientation? In Gilligan's theory of moral development a more orientation that emphasizes reponsding to others' needs
What is the dominant perspective on the development of moral reasoning? Kohlberg's theory, which agues that late adolescence is a time of potential shifting from a morality that defines right and wrong in terms of society's rules to one of the basis of one's own basic moral principles
What has research provided about the ways males and females approach moral problems? there is no support for this argument; there is also no support to show that girls have more trouble finding their "voice" than adolescent boys
According to Erikson, what are the three types of autonomy? emotional (establishment of adultlike close relationships with family and peers), behavioral (establishment of independent decisions and follow through), and value (establishment of independent set of values/beliefs)
Adolescents who have a stronger sense of self-reliance report having what? And how does the genders differ on self-reliance? they have higher self-esteem and fewer behavior problems; adolescent girls tend to report feeling more self-reliant than adolescent boys
Involvement in community service leads to what? gains in social responsibility, tolerance, and the importance that individuals place on the importance of helping others
What happens to political thinking and religious beliefs during the development of value autonomy? they become more abstract, less rigid, and more principled
Accoring to Sullivan's theory, which interpersonal needs are associate with adolescence? need for intimacy (preadolescence), need for sexual contact (early adolescence), need for intimacy with a peer of the opposite sex (early adolescence), and need for integration into adult society (late adolescence)
What is intimacy versus isolation? the sixth stage/crisis characteristic of psychosocial development (Erikson), predominant during young adulthood
What is pseudointimacy? superficial intimacy characteristic of relationships between individuals who are not emotionally mature
What are the three types attachment in infancy? secure attachment (healthy, characterized by trust), anxious-avoidant attachment (indifference on the part of the infant towards caregiver), andious-resistant attachment (distress at separation and ager at reunion)
What is the internal workking model? the implicit model of interpersonal relationships that an individual employs throughout life, believed to be shaped by early attachment experiences
Individuals who enjoyed a secure attachment to their caregiver during infancy develops what? a healthier or more secure internal working model of relationships, which is thought to permit more satisfying intimate relationships during aolescence and adulthood
What are the sex differences in the expression of intimacy? girls' relationships are more intimate based on socialization; gils disclose more to their friends, are more sensitve and empathetic, and are more concerned with trust and loyalty
Who profits more psychologically from opposite-sex friendships boys
What does Sullivan's Theory of Interpersonal Development argue? the social, rather than the biological aspects of growth, and psychological development an be best understood in interpersonal terms; focus on transformations in realtionships with others
What are the four stages of evolution of romance in adolescence? infatuation (interest in socializing with potential romantic/sexual partners), status (establishing/improving/maintaining peer group status), intimate (establish meaningful attachments to romantic partners), bonding (committment)
What are the conflicting views of Sullivan and Erikson? Sullivan: the development of intimacy leads to the development of a coherent sense of self in late adolescence; Erikson: one must have a clear sense of who one is in order to avoid becoming lost in a relationship with someone else
What are the impacts of dating? seriously dating before age 15 has a stunting effect on psychosocial development; adolescent girls who do not date at all show retaded social development, excessive dependency on parents, feelings of insecurity
What are the four developmental challenges of adolescence? accepting one's changing body, accepting one's feelings of sexual arousal, understanding thatsexua activity is voluntary, and practicing safe sex
What are restrictive societies? societies in which adolescents are pressured to refrain from sexual activity until they have married or undergone a formal rite of passafe into adulthood
What are semi-restrictive societies? societies in which pressures against adolescent sexual activity exist but are not vigilantly enforced
Early sexual activity (before age 16) is more common for what adolescents? adolescent growing up in single parent households
Ealy sexual activity (before age 16) is associated with what behaviors? experimentation with drug and alcohol, lower levels of religious involvement, higher tolerance of deviant behavior, lower interest in academic achievement, and higher orientation toward independence
Adolescents who have been sexually abused are more likely to show what? higher than average rates of academic difficulties, anxiety, fear, and depression; more likely to engage in risky behavior and more likely to become pregnant as teenagers
Authoritative parenting is associated with adolescents who are what? less likely to become sexually active at an early age and less likely to engage in risky sexual activity
Parent-adolescent communication about sex does what? stops them from engaging in risky sexual behaviors, but does little to prevent them from being sexually active in general
What is intrinsic and extrinsic motivation? intrinsic - motivation based on the pleasure one will experience from mastering a task; extrinsic - motivation based on the rewards one will rceive for successful performance
What is a stereotype threat? the harmful effect that exposure to stereotypes about eithnic or sex differences in ability has on student performance
What is self-efficacy? the sense that na individual has some control over his or her life
What are achievement attributions? the beliefs an individual holds about the causes of one's successes and failures
What is learned helplessness? the acquied belief that an individual is not able to influence events through his or her own efforts or actions
What is crystallization? According to Super, the stage during which individuals, typically ages 14-18, first begin to formulate their ideas about appropriate occupations
What is specification? According to Super, the stage duing which individuals, typically ages 18-21, first begin to consider narrowly dfined occupational pursuits
What are work values? the particcupar sorts of rewards an individual looks for in a job (extrinsic, intrinsic, social, altruistic, secuiry, influence, leisure)
Adolescents' career choices are influenced by what factors? personality, work values, social background, and perceptions of the balbor market and their potential place in it
Teens with high need for achievement have authoritative parents who have done what? encouraged success, set high performance standards, rewarded achievement during child, and encouraged autonomy and independence
What are the three factors that interact to predict students' behavior in school believe that intelligence is fixed or malleable, intrinsic or extrinsic orientation, sense of self-efficacy
How does the home environment influence achievement? through parents' values and expectations, parents' general appoach to parenting, and quality of the home environment provided
Educational achievement is defined in what three ways? school performance (grades earned), academic achievement (performance on standardized tests), and educational attainment (years of schooling completed)
What are the reasons given for poor achivement in the United States? teachers aren't spending enough time on basic instruction, textbooks have become less challening, parents do not encourage academic pursuits at home, studnts choose their own classes, grade inflation, lower average performance
What is Super's Theory? occupational plans develop in stages: crystallization (formulate ideas about appropriate work) and specification (recognizes need to specify vocational interests and seeks appropriate information to do so)
What is the problem behavior syndrome? the covariation among various types of externalizing disorders believed to result from an underlying trait of unconventionality
What is the social control theory? a theory of delinquency that links deviance with the absence of bonds to society's main institutions
What is negative affectivity? the presumed underlying cause of internalizing disorders, characterized by high levels of subjective distess
What is dopamine? a neurotransmitter espcially important in the brain circuits that regulate the experience of pleasure
The potential for addiction and for other harmful physical consequences is significantly greater when the first use of subnstances occurs before what age? 14; drugs can affect dopamine production in the brain, possibly altering it permanently
What are psychopaths? individuals who are not only antisocial but also manipulative, superficially charming, impulsive, and indifferent to the feelings of others
Who are life-course-persistent offenders as opposed to adolescence-limited offenders? individuals who being demonstrating antisocial or aggressive behavior during childhood and continue their antisocial behavior throughout adolescence and into adulthood
What is the hospital attributional bias? the tendency to interpret ambiguous interactions with others as deliberately hostile
Antisocial behavior takes what three forms? authority-related conflicts (running away), covert antisocial behavior (stealing), and overt antisocial behavior (attacking someone with a weapon)
Life-course-persistent offenders typically have histories of what? early family problems, childhood aggression, and neuropsychological deficits as well as strong dispositions toward antisocial behavior
What is oxytocin? a hormone known to influence emotional bonding to others
What is the diathesis-stress model? a perspective on disorder that posits that problems are the rsult of an interaction between a preexisting condition (the the diathesis) and exposure to a stressful event or condition
What are SSRIs? a class of antidepressant medications that have proven to be effective with adolescents suffering from interalizing problems, such as depression
What is Kandel's argument regarding problem behaviors? Involvement in one problem behavior may lead to involvement in a second one (cascading effects)
Studies show that there are six patterns of substance use. What are they? nonusers, alcohol experimenters, low escalators, early starters, late starters, high escalators
What are the major risk factors for substance abuse? personality (anger, impulsivity, inattentiveness), family (distant, hostile, conflicted relationships), socially (friends who use and tolerate the use of drugs, living in a contect that makes drug use easy)
What are the major protective factors against substance abuse? positive mental health, high academic achivement, engagement in school, close family relationships, and involvement in religious activities
What programs are the most encouraging interventions for substance use and abuse? those that combine social competence training for adolescenets and community-wide interventions aimed at adolescents, peers, parents, and teachers
Why are females more likely to be depressed? gender roles (pressure to act passive, dependent, fragile), greater levels of stress during early adolescence, ruminating more (turning feelings inward), and greater sensitivity to others (oxytocin)
What are some treatment and prevention approaches of internalizing problems? treatment - biological (antidepressent meds "SSRIs"), psychotherapies, and family therapy; prevention - teaching life skills to help cope with stress, secondary prevention aimed at adolescents who are at risk for depression or are under stress
Created by: rhiplay104