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Psych 478

Clinical Psych Exam 2

QuestionAnswer
What are the five general principles of the APA Ethics Code? Beneficence and Nonmaleficence, Fidelity and Responsibility, Integrity, Justice, and Respect for People's Rights an Dignity
What are the "four horsemen" of professional ethics? Confidentiality, Competency, Informed Consent, and Conflict of Interest
What is confidentiality? when the therapist protects the client's privacy and, except in specific circumstances, does not reveal information that the client shares in therapy
What is competency? when clinicians will be professionally responsible and practice only within their areas of expertise
What is informed consent? an obligation for therapists to tell clients about the limits of confidentiality, about potential outcomes of treatment, and about anything else that might affect the clients' willingness to enter treatment
What is conflict of interest? the therapist's obligation to maintain therapeutic boundaries or a therapeutic "framework" so that the therapist's personal interests does not conflict with the patient's best interests
What are the therapeutic factors of group therapy? Sharing new information, instilling hope, universality, altruism, interpersonal learning, and group cohesiveness
What are the advantages of heterogenous groups in group therapy? Heterogenous groups are easier to form. They also have the advantage of exposing members to a wide range of people and perspectives.
What are the advantages of homogenous groups in group therapy? They facilitate a direct focus on the common problem that motivated each member to enter treatment.
What are psychoeducational groups? Cognitive-Behavioral groups that focus on learning and on sharing information rather than on group process; effectively used for depression, anxiety, trauma related to terrorism, alcohol abuse, chronic pain, and obesity
What is cojoint therapy? when the therapist sees both members of the couple at the same time
What is separation counseling? when members of a couple are seen separately when they want help to end a marraige or relationshp with minimum conflict over property or child custody
What is triangulation? when a third person is brought into the dyadic relationship to de-intensify a dispute between two people (generally the parents)
What is the identified client? And what his/her typical characteristics? a family member who is having particularly noticeable problems; typically a male child with unmanageable behavior or a female who is withdrawn and sad
What behavioral methods are used in the Ecological Family Intervention and Therapy (EcoFIT) model? teach parents to be firm and consistent, encourage each famly member to communicate clearly, educate family members in behavior-ecchange principles, discourage blaming of identified client, and help all consider whether their expectations are reasonable
How does parent-child interaction therapy work? it allows therapists to work with both parents and childre and directly coaches parents about how to interact with their child; effective with oppositional defiant disorder and separation anxiety disorder
What are the primary goals of community psychology? to help individuals adapt to and cope with their environment, to understand the causes of disorders more broadly, and to modify community-level causes before they have an opportunity to negatively influence individuals and groups
What is the ecological perspective? it suggests that people's behavior develops out of their interavtions with all aspects of their environment: physical, social, political, and economic
What are the prominent factors that lead to the development of community psychology? disenchantment with the focus on psychodynamic approaches, skepticism about the psychological diagnosis reliability and validity and about the benefits of traditional psychotherapy, MH professional shortages, civil rights turmoil, MH centers
What differentiates community psychology from traditional clinical psychology? they influence local citizens to be active in improving conditions, facilitates social-system change, promotes a psychological sense of community, has paraprofessionals, use of activism, and use of research as a form of intervention
What are indigineous paraprofessionals? those who are drawn from the very groups that will receive their services
What is dissemination research? experimentation designed to evaluate alternative methods of implementing programs that initial studies have shown to be successful
At what three levels can mental health problems be prevented? tertiary, secondary, and primary
What is teritary prevention? indicated prevention intervention; lessening the severity of disorders and reducing short-term and long-term consequences of mental health problems
What is secondary prevention? selective mental health prevention; involves interventions for people who are at risk for developing a disorder
What is primary prevention? universal mental health prevention; involves avoiding the development of disorders by either modifying environments or strengthening indivuals so that they are not susceptible to those disorders in the first place
What is self-help? the provide a structured way of understanding nd deailing with a problem where members assist one another by exchaging information, providing social support, and discussing mutual problems
What is bibliotherapy? reading books about how to deal with psychological problems
What can bibliotherapy be effective for? problems like depression, anxiety, and mild alcohol abuse, but not for smoking cessation or moderate to severe levels of alcohol abuse
What is CAM? complementary/alternative medicine includes herbology, chiropractic methods, massage therapy, nutrition, applied kinesiology, and biofeedback
What has research found about spirituality and mental health? having a guiding faith and having a supportive faith-based communicay can help kids in harsh psychosocial environments, prayer and spirituality helps against cancer, HIV/AIDS, and stress; also, higher quality of life and fewer physical and MH problems
What is mindfulness? intentionally bringing one's attention to the internal and external experiences occurring in the present moment
What is psychotherapy integration? the process of combining elements of various clinical psychology theories in a systematic manner
What is technical integration? when clinicians select assessment and treatment methods from all those available in the field
What is theoretical integration? when a clinical proposes to resolve conflicts among the major psycholgoical theories so that thee is genuine theoretical inegreation in psychology
What is the common factors approach? when clincians seek the variables that are ommon to all (or most) effective treatments
What is assimilative integration? When clinicians hold one primary theoretical orientation but use techniques from other appoaches (mostly this but some of that)
What are the research goals? determine the efficacy of treatment, compare th relative effectiveness of different treatments, assess components responsible for changes, assess durability of benefits, identify negative side effects, determine significance and cost-effectiveness
What is the most powerful research design? the controlled experiment
What are between-subjects designs? when different groups of clients are eposed to diffeenting treatments and the amount and type of changes observed in each group are compared
What are within-subjects designs? when clients get a single kin of treatment, but the experimenter alters it in some way at various points and observes any changes in behavior that might occur
What is the reversal/ABAB design? when a no-treatment baseline period is alternated with a treatment period (e.g. autistic girl video)
What is the multiple-baseline design? one which allows them to evaluate the effect of an intervention without discontinuing it. Instead, the researcher observes several problematic behaviors at once but applies treatment to only one of them.
What are factorial experiments? experiments that allow the researcher to examine the impact of various factorrs that might be responsible for observed changes in clients (i.e. one gets treatment package while other gets part of treatment package thought to be the most effective portion)
What is the placebo-control group? those exposed to procedures that are impressive enough to generate expectations for improvement but involve no formal treatment methods
What is dismantling? when researchers can take apart treatments that are known to work in order to identify their most helpful aspects
When is an experiment said to have high internal validity? if the design allows the researcher to assert that observed changes in depent variable were caused by maniplated independ variables, not by some unknown or uncontrolled confounding factors
When is an experiment high on external validity? if their results are applicable, or generalizable, to clients, problems, and situations other thn those included in the experiment
What is efficacious? What is effectiveness? when something works in large-scale studies run under controlled circumstanes; when something is available and useful in the real world of clinical service delivery
What is analog research? Something which seeks to approximate clinical conditions in a controlled experimental setting (role play)
What are the advantages of analog research? ability to control the client, therapist, and environmental variables, recreuit a sufficient number of clients, train therapists to conduct treatments, and keep the number and length of treatment sessions consistent
On what dimensions can analog and clinical settings be compared? client characteristics (varies), target problem (less of a grand scale), therapist characteristics (less knowledge, more specific training), and treatment techniques (by the book)
What is spontaneous remission? improvement without any special treatment
Why is there discrepancy in the therapy-outcome reviews? different reseachers have used different standards in selecting the outcome studies they survey, evaluating the wuality of these studies, interpreting the magnitude of therapy effects, and combining the results of many studies to reach their conclusion
What happens in a box score review? the researcher makes categorical judgments about whether each outcome study yielded positive or negative results an then tallies the number of positive and negative outcomes
What is meta-analysis? a quantitative technique that standardizes the outcomes of a large number of studies so they can be compared or combined
What is the effect size? the treatment group mean on a dependent measure minus the control group mean on the same measure divded by the standard deviation of the control group
What are the criticisms of EST Research? are treatments shown to be effective in controlled settings generalizable to clinical settings? Is DSM the right criteria used to select therapy-outcome study analysis? Are specific treatment techniques only a small proportion of variance? Manuals?
What is evidence-based priace in psychology (EBPP)? the integration of the best available research with clinical expertise in the context of patient characteristics, culture, and preferenes
What are the recent attempts to bridge the divide between researchers and clinicians? transporting lab-based treatments to clinic, implementation, dissemination of treatments to clinicians and clients
What is implementation? putting evidence-based techniques into practice in the real world
What therapist characteristics were found to be effective? strong therapeutic alliance, higher levels of empathy, stronger goal consensus and collaboration with client
Which client variables are associated with a better outcome? openness, low levels of resistence, less severe psychological problems, strong optimistic expectations
When are better outcomes achieved in group therapy? when the group is cohesive, provides accuate feedback to members, and enfcourages interpersonal larning and suppotive interactions
What has research shown about the effectiveness of couples therapy? it usually produces positive effects lasting through a 6-month follow-up, but most couples relapse to disstressed states after 1 to 4 years
What types of family therapy have received the strongest empirical support? behavioral and structural family therapies (behavioral parent training, parent management training, parent-child interaction therapy)
When are family based treatments less effective? for families fom disadvantaged backgrounds
For what problems does bibliotherapy appear more effective for? anxiety, epression, and mild alcohol abuse as opposed to chronic problems such as smoking and severe alcohol abuse
What is developmental psychopathology? childhood disorders from a developmental perspective
What are the characteristics unique to clinical child psychology? the referal process, confidentiality, contexts of behavior, developmental considerations, parent-child interactions, risk factors, and protective factors
How is the referral process unique in clinical child psychology? mostly children rely on their parents and other adults in order to gain access to mental health services
How is confidentiality unique in clinical child psychology? legal commitment to confidentiality does not estrict clinicans from disclosing client information to parents or guardians (if adolescent, it makes them wary of sharing information with the therapist)
How are the contexts of behavior unique in clinical child psychology? where they live, what type of job they have, when they go to bed and wake up, with whom they spend their time, what they eat, and how they run their lives are less in their control if there is even any control at all
What is normative discontent? a phenomenon such as when the majority of adolescent girls experience poor body image
How are developmental considerations unique in clinical child psychology? the appropriateness of children's behavior must be evalueated in light of the developmental stage they are in at the time
What is the recipocal or bidirectional view of parent-child interaction? the child's temperament and behavior influence the parents's behavior and parental tolerance and responses alter the child's behavior (parents and children teach each other to adopt aversive control tactics that can lead to childhood aggressiveness
What is a reinforcement trap? each obtains a short-term benefit at the expense of undesirable long-term consequences
What are risk factors? Characteristics wihin the child, family, community, culture, or society that ae associated with heightened risk that the child will develop some type of emotional/behavioral problem or psychopathology
What are the findings regarding interparental conflict? Parents' verbal arguments and fighting are associated with increased emotional/behavioral problems in children and adolescents
What problems are associated with physical abuse in children? conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, aggression, depression, anxiety disorders, poor social competence, and poor academic performance
Under what nature of sexual abuse if the child more psychologically harmed? when it was prolonged, the perpetrator was a father figure, there was intercourse, there was coercion or physical threats, and if the child's report of abuse was not believed
Sexual abuse is associated with higher risks of what? depression, suicide, poor coping, and relationship problems in adulthood
Growing up in poverty is associated with what problems? externalizing range of behavior such as aggression, conduct disorcer, and oppostiional defiant disorder
What are the difficulties in classifying childhood disorders? the DSM is not adjusted to reflect developmental differences, compares to adults, offers same criteria for boys and girls, offers little coverage of disorders seen in infancy/early childhood, finds difficulty with comorbidity, and has lower reliability
What is comorbidity? the co-occurence of two or more disorders within the same person
What is the difference between externalizing problems and internalizing problems? externalizing factors refers to acting-out behavior that is aversive to others in the child's environment. internalizing factors refer to problems the child experiences that may not be evident, let alone disturbing, to others
What are the core features of ADHD? inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity
What is ODD? Oppositional Defiant Disorder - developmentally inappropriate levels of opposition and defiance toward a parent, caretaker, or teacher; negative attitude, quick temper, recurrent anger, and deliberate annoyance of others
What is CD? Conduct disorder - persistent pattern of violating the rights of others and violating social norms
What is characteristic of children with autism? severe problems in social functioning, language development, and unusual inappropriate behaviors. they do not seek interactions with others, have echolalia, and computer generated speech
What is echolalia? repitition of whatever one hears
What is characteristic of children with asperger's? significant impairments in social interactions although they desire it, unusual behavior, activities, and interests that are repititious, however...they are able to develop language
What is play therapy? the allowance of children to express their inner concerns through play, such as through the voices they give puppets and dolls and through ther interactions with other materials, such as modeling clay
What are the negative effects of pharmacological interventions with children? responsible for suicides and homocides, adverse physical effects, school stigma involved medication, assumption child cannot behave appropriately without medicine, assumption that problem is biological as opposed to environmental, and illegal use of meds
What is the most effective treatment for childhood disorders? cognitive-behavioral and sometimes behavioral techniques
What training is more effective with children? Adolescents? behavioral training is more effective with younger children while cognitive-behavioral treatments is more effective with adolescents
What has research found regarding "talking" therapies with children? no documented benefits to child clients
What is the biopsychosocial model? physical illness is the result of biological, psychological, and social disruptions
Who is Sir William Osler? the father of modern behavioral medicine because he insisted that psychological and emotional factors must be considered in oder to understand and treat various diseases
What is stress? the nagative emotional and physiological process that occurs as people try to adjust to or deal with environmental circumstances that disrupt, or threaten to disrupt, their daily functioning beyond their ability or perceived abaility to cope
What is a stressor? the environmental circumstances that cause people to make adjustments
What are stress reactions? physical psychological, cognitive, and behavioral responses that people display in the face of stressors
What is the general adaptation syndrome? a pattern of responses in the central and autonomic nervous system discovered by Hans Selye: alarm reaction, stage of resistance, stage of exhaustions
What is the alarm reaction in the GAS? the fight-or-flight response that releases stress hormones in the bloodstream
What is the stage of resistance in the GAS? less dramatic but more continuous biochemical efforts to cope with stress are released that can have harmful consequences
What is the stage of exhaustion in the GAS? when various organ systems begin to malfunction or break down
What is immunosuppression? the suppresson of the immune system, the body's first line of defense against disease-causing agents
What are the three important stress resistance factors? adaptive coping strategies, stress-hardy personality characteristics, and social support
What is coping? cognitive, emotional, and behavioral efforts at modifying, tolderating, or eliminating stressors that threaten them
What is the difference between problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping? problem-focused coping solves the problem through action; emotion-focused coping is done internally
What are the positive characteristics of personality? What do they do? optimism, resilience, faith and hope, curiosity, and adaptive defense mechanisms; they play a protective role with regard to health
What has research found regarding social support? the relationship between stress and illness is weaker among individuals who perceive high levels of social support in their lives; low social support puts those at higher risk for physical and psychological disorders
What is the direct-effect model? it states that social support is helpful regardless of whether stressful events are experienced because there is a general health benefit to being embedded in supportive relationships
What are the psychological factors associated with Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)? Type A behavior; hostile individuals have significantly stronger physiological responses to stress than less hostile indivduals; depression also increases the risk
What are the interventions of CHD? reduce type A behavior, changing diet, edercise, and smoking habits, taking prescribed medications, relaxation training, self-monitoring, training in coping skills, workplace interventions and community based and internet-based interventions
What is phantom pain? pain experienced by individuals who have lost a limb
What are the inventions for cancer? understand and confront the disease more actively, cope with disease related stressors, develop emotionally supportive relationships, relaxation training, hypnosis, stress management, cognitive restructuring, educational programs, and group therapy
What is anticipatory nausea? getting nauseated even before receiving drugs
What is compliance/adherence? the extent to which patients adhere to medical advice and treatment regimens
What are the causes of nonadherence? miscommunication between physicians and patients (confusion), antagonism toward physician, complexity/discomfort associated with treatment, and simply not being able to remember what to do and when to do it
What are the interventions in place to help improve adherence? educating patents about importance, modifying treatment to make adherence easier, using behavioral and cognitive-behavioral techniques such as self-monitoring, reminder cues, and other tools to increase ability to adhere
What is the health belief model? theory that patients' adherence depends on how susceptible they are to an illness or its severity, how effective v. how costly/difficult the treatment is, the influence of internal and external cues in determining health behaviors
What is a contingency contract? when you specify what behaviors the patient can perform in order to earn rewards (in regards to adherence)
What is forensic psychology? the application of mental health knowledge and expertise to the assessment and treatment of individuals who, in some way, are involved in the legal process or legal system
What do clinical psychologists address in forensic psych? whether an individual is sufficiently mentally ill/dangerous to be hospitalized, competent enough to stand trial, sane at the time of offense, has suffered psychological harm as a result of injury or trauma
What does law enforcement psychology involve? conducting research on the activities of law enforcement agencies and providing direct clinical servies in support of these agencies
What is the psychology of litigation concerned with? the effects of various legal procedures used in civil or criminal trials, jury selection, factors that influence jury deliberation, and effects of opening statements, witness examinations, and closing arguments
What is correctional psychology concerned with? the delivery of psychological services to indivduals serving jail sentences fter having been convicted of a crime
What is tort law? a mechanism for indiviuals to seek dress or the ham they have suffered from the wrongful acts of another party
What is criminal law? when defendants are prosecuted for wrongful behavior and are punished in an attempt to maintain society's overall sense of justice
What is the workers' compensation law? when emplyers contribute to a fund that provides workers' compensation insurance where employees waive their right to pursue a tort against their employers
What are civil competencies? mental compentencies in noncriminal situations
What is a competent individual expected to be? one who understands basic information relevant to making a decision, applies inormation to anticipate consequences, uses rational thinking to evaluate pros and cons, and communicates a decision under consideration
What disrupts the validity of psychological autopsies? most information comes "secondhand", decedent's true state of mind prior to death is unknown
What is criminal profiling? inferences made about an individua's motives and state of mind on the basis of life records or other dara peprson has left behind
What is the most common recommendation in custody battles? limited joint custody where parents share the decision making, but one parent maintains primary physical custody
What is custody mediation? when a mediator heops the parties agree on a resolution of their differences by providing a safe environment for communication and by helping them explore various options
Who are parent coordinators? clinicians that help clients address parenting issues by focusong on the developmental and emotional needs o the children and to resolve among themselves issues that otherwise would have to be decided by a judge in an adversarial setting
What can experts testify about? descriptions of parties' symptoms, behavior, and demeanor; explanation of evaluation and assessment instruments used; opinions about the party's mental status, including diagnosis of mental disorder
What are experts not allowed to testify about? opinion as to wehther a defendant is competent to stand trial or was sane at the time of offense, whether a party was competent to make a will, which two parents would make a better guardian, or another other opinion
What is the most common reason for the loss of a state license? sexual misconduct with clients
What is the most common complaint in malpractice lawsuits? the failture to prevent a client's suicide
What is the positive psychology movement? a focus on understanding and promoting personal growth and human potential
What is dissemination the sharing of information with other professionals and with the public
What are mirror neurons? neurons that facilitate learning behaviors by watchng others and allow the expression of empathy and feeling of emotions that others are experiencing at the time
What is translational research? research of basic sciences that are translated into applied practices
What is the importance of cultural considerations in psychotherapy? to gauge the client's likelihood of medical utilizations, terminations, and dissatisfactions
What are some institutional barriers of medical utilization? culturally insensitive services (e.g. far away, not bilingual), and lack of traditional treatment matches
What are some psychological barriers of medical utilization? language, focus on nonverbals, revelation, trust, individual change (v. family), individuatiion (western), time (differing concept of time), historical context (not focused on individual past), dichotomy (mind v. body)
What is YAVIS and HOUND? YAVIS - young, attractive, verbal, intelligent, successsful; HOUND (not desirable) - humble, old, unattractive, nonverbal, dumb
Potential solutions to cultural differences? training of minority professionals, training of non-minorities aware of ethnic differences, ethnic specific therapies, ethnic matching
What three methods are used to study ethnic matching? analog studies (roleplay to real situation, manipulate, state preference, rate characteristics), archival studies (records attendence/drop-outs), and process & outcome studies
What were the findings associated with ethnic matching? does not achieve better outcomes; effective in preventing premature termination; different matching based on ethnicity (e.g. latino focuses on language); client high on mistrust more likely benefit from ethnic matching
What are the factors that contributed to the emergencence of community psychology? lack of professionals, dissatisfaction w/ psychotherapy, changing concepts of MH, dissatisfaction w/ role by clinicans, research on service, conditions in mental hospitals
How does community psychology compare to traditional psychology? focuses on environment/neighborhood, changes whole systems, prevents, enhances competence, strengthens community, seeking v. waiting, collaboration with non-professionals, community empowerment, public education, social reform/advocacy
Systems theory focuses on looking at what two things? the family structure (how does the family organize and maintain itself?) and the family processes (dynamic between the players)
What is cybernetic epistemology? the concept that all families are constantly involved in each other and feedback loops (always impacted each other)
In a family, what occurs when there is an absence of boundaries? abuse and emotional problems
What is the difference between enmeshed, disengaged, and health boundaries? enmeshed - everyone involved with each other but closed off from the world; disengaged - no one involved with each other and infused with the world; healthy - involved with both family as well as world
What did Virginia Satir say about family roles? they serve to stabilize expected behavior patterns in the family (e.g. if one child is the "bad child" then a sibling must take on the role as the "good child"
What did Virginia Satir Experiental Family Therapy say was the cause of family dysfunction? suppressed emotions that stop natural growth toward emotional development
What are the goals of Satir's Experiental Family Therapy? to produce emotinal experiences during sessions; to encourage statements of real feelings between family members
What techniques are used in Satir's Experiental Family Therapy? modeling, leveling (honest w/ one another), sculpting (nonverbal expression of relationships), touching (connection is powerful), drawing (like sculpting), props (e.g. rope)
Who is Salvador Minuchin? the founder of structural family therapy
What techniques are used in structural family therapy? enactment while staging an interaction, acting against or supporting at the expense of another, throwing off the family system
What are the areas of assessment in play therapy? developmental issues, separation anxiety, ability to elate interpersonally, ability to concentrate, mood/quality of play, age-appropriateness of play, themes/areas of conflict
What is catharsis? the acting out of inner emotions
What is sublimation? redirecting socially unacceptable impulses into acceptable channels
What toys are used in play therapy? dolls, puppets, dollhouses, animals, transportation toys, clay, paint, water, sand, blocks, games
What are the challenges in psychotherapy research? getting an adequate sample size, random sample, treatment control/random assignment, statistic
What did Eysenck's findings reveal regarding whether psychotherapy, eclectic treatment, or no treatment individuals showed more improvement 72% no treatment showed improvement; 44% psychoanalystic showed improvement; 64% eclectic treatment showed improvement
What were the criticisms of Eysenck's study? controls were not necessarily matched with treatment groups, improvement measures varied between patient and clinician answers, different studies are measured instead of separately
What are the advantages and disadvantages of meta-analysis? pro - able to assess significance level and effect sizes across studies, synthesis/evaluation; con - all published studies, subjective/bias
What is the dodo bird effect? when all treatment approaches seem to be equally effective (with behavioral as an exception)
What are the arguments for ESTs? worthwhile necessary step, ethics, economies (managed care), scientific responsibility to make therapy useful
What are the arguments against ESTs? reliability/validity of DSM, manuals disort therapy process, research participants differ from clients, high exclusion rates because they don't meet criteria, overemphasis on therapy form, and not generalizable
What are some examples of behavioral medicine? smoking cessation/prevention, weight control, stress management, coping w/ invasive medical procedures
According health psychology and pain, experienes are shaped by what? interactive behaviors with others, secondary gain (a person helping provides benefits aside from pain), self-efficacy (high efficacy, high pain tolerance), locus of control (high internal locus, high pain tolerance), coping stategy (active v. passive)
What evidence shows a will to live has an impact on mortality? fewer famous men died before their birthday month, elderly chinese women before harvest moon festival, and jewish men before passover
What is allopathic medicine? western/modern medicine
What is integrative medicine? a blend between allopathic medicine and alternative medicine
What are the referral sources in forensic psychology? court appointments, prosecutors, public defenders, private defense attorneys, and forensic psychiatrists
What are the three interrelated dangers associated with ethics? harm (such as not doing what you are at liberty to provide), exploitation (sexual advances), and disrespect (thing that demeans their dignity)
What are the conditions of breaching confidentiality? involuntary committment (need hospitalization against will), client raises mental condition and therapist testifies, client has court-ordered evaluation, client is abusing others or expressing intent to harm
What are the identified stereotypes of psychotherapists? Dr. Dippy (crazy), Dr. Evil (has malintent), Dr. Wonderful (warm, amazing), Dr. Rigid (stiff, distant), and Dr. Line Crosser (aggressive, romantic)
What are the advantages of using cinematherapy? they are generally available to people and easy to understand, talk about uncomfortable topics, deepen emotions, provide role models/hope, reframe problems
Created by: rhiplay104