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A&P Ch13

Central Nervous System

2 protective coverings of brain and spinal cord outer-consist of bone-cranial encases the brain, vertebea encase the spinal cordinner-membranes known as meninges
Meninges inner covering of the brain; has 3 distinct layers: Dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater
Dura mater stong white fibrous tissue, outer later of meninges and inner periosteum of cranial bone
Extensions of the dura mater falx cerebri, falx cerebelli, tentorium cerebelli
Falx cerebri partition between the 2 cerbral hemispheres
Falx cerebelli separates the 2 hemispheres of the cerebellum
Tentorium cerebelli separates the cerebellum from the cerebrum
Arachnoid mater delicate, cobwebby layer between the dura mater and pia mater
Pia mater innermost layer of meninges, transport layer, adheres to the outer surface of the brain and spinal cord, contains blood vessels
Spaces between and around the the meninges epidural space, subdural space, subarachnoid space
Epidural space located between the dura mater adn inside the bony covering of the spinal cord; contains a supporting cushion of fat and other connective tissues
Subdural space located between the dura mater and arachnoid mater; contains lubricating serous fluid
Subarachnoid space located between the arachnoid and pia mater; contains a significant amoung of cerebrospinal fluid
filum terminale slender filament formed by the pia mater that blends with the dura mater and then the periosteum of teh coccyx
Functions of the cerbrospinal fluid provides a supportive, protective cushionreservior of circulating fluid, which is monitored by the brain to detect changes in the internal environment
Where are the cerbrospinal fluid spaces found subarachnoid space around the brain adn spinal cord within the cavities and canals of the brain and spinal cord
Ventricles 4 fluid-filled spaces within the brain1-2:lateral, one located on each hemisphere3: thin, vertical pocket of fluid below and medial to the lateral ventricles4: tiny, diamond-shaped space where cerebellum attaches to the back of brainstem
Formation and circulation of cerebrospinal fluid occurs by separation of fluid from blood in the choroid plexuses
Choroid plexuses networks of capillaries that project from the pia mater into the lateral ventricles and into the roofs of the 3rd & 4th ventricles
Amount of CSF in average adult 140ml
Structure of the spinal cord lies within the spinal cavity and extends form the foramen magnum to the lower border of the 1st lumbar vert, oval cylinder that tapers downward, 2 bulges, anterior median fissure and posterior median sulcus are 2 deep grooves
Anterior median fissure deeper and wider of the two grooves
Nerve roots two bundles of nerve fibers project from each side of the spinal cord: dorsal nerve root and ventral nerve root
Fibers of dorsal nerve root carry sensory information into the spinal canal
Fibers of ventral nerve root carry motor information out of the spinal cord
Spinal nerve single mixed nerve on each side of spinal cord where the dorsal and ventral roots join together
Cauda equina bundle of nerve roots extending form the conus medullaris
Gray matter structure of spinal cordcolumns extend the length of the cord; consist predominantly of cell bodies of interneurons and motor neurons; in transverse section looks like an H
White matter structure of spinal cordsurrounds the gray matter and is subdivided in each half of cord into 3 funiculi
Funiculi anterior, posterior, and lateral white columnsconsist of a large bundle of nerve fibers divided into smaller bundles called spinal tracts
Spinal tracts white columns of the spinal cord that provide consuction paths to and from the brainascending tracts carry information to the brain; descending tracts conduct impulses from the brain
Functions of the spinal cord provide conduction routes to and from the brain
Structures of the brain that make up the brainstem medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain; extends inferiorly from diencephalon to foramen magnum where it meets the spinal cord
Location of Medulla Oblongata attaches to the spinal cord, located just above the foramen magnum, composed of white matter and a network of gray and white matter called the reticular formation network
pyramids two bulges of white matter located on ventral surface of medulla
olive oval projection located lateral to the pyramids on the medulla
Location of Pons located above medulla and below the midbrain; composed of white and reticular matter
Location of Midbrain forms the midsection of the brain, loacted above the pons adn below the cerebrum
Cerebral peduncles roplelike masses of white matter that extend divergently through the midbrain, tracts within conduct impulses between the midbrain and the cerebrum
Functions of the brainstem performs sensory, motor, and reflex functions
Spinothalamic tracts important sensory tracts that pass through the brainstem
Funtion of Pons contains reflex mediated by 5h-8th cranial nerves and pneumotaxic centers that help regulate respiration
Function of midbrain integration of numerous cranial nerve reflexes, such as eye movement and ear reflexes
Structure of cerebellum roughly spherical structures attached at the posterior of the brainstem; wrinkled gray matter cortex, branched network of white fibers inside, and several small gray nuclei
sulci grooves on the surface of the cerebellum and cerebrum
gyri raised areas on the surface of the cerecullum and cerbrum
Dentate nuclei important pair of cerebellar nuclei; nuclei connected with thalamus and with motor areas of the cerebral cortex by tracts; by means of tracts cerebellar impulses influence the motor cortex and the motor cortex influences the cerebellum
Functions of cerebellum coordinates many functions of cerebrum, including planning and control of skilled movements, posture, balance, coordination of sensory information relating to body position and movement
Created by: smweckler