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Radiology test

radiology test

QuestionAnswer
Angiography blood vessels
Upper GI ( Barium swallow) esophagus, stomach, duodenum, and small intestines, for sisease ( ulcers, tumors hiatal hernia , esophagus varices )
Lower GI - Enema "( Barium Enema )" study colon for dieases ( polyps, tumors, lesions )
Cholecystography study of gall bladder for disease ( stones, duct obstrcution , inflammation)
Cholangiography to view > Bile ducts for possible caculi or lesions
Cystography Urinary bladder for lesions, calculi
Hysterosalpingography to view Uterus / Fallopian tubes for possibe leakage and blockage, pelvic masses.
IVP ( Intravenous pyelography )u Views Kidneys , uterers, Bladder, to detect kidney stones ,lesions, strictures of the U-tract
Mammography detect abnormalties in the breast especially breast cancer
Retrograde Pyelography View kidney / U-tract for abnormalties
AP (anteroposterior View ) Front > Back
PA ( posteroanterior View ) Back > Front
LA ( lateral View ) pases thru bady from one side to opposite side
RL ( Right lateral ) (Right side of body next to film ---xray beam >> thru left to right )
LL ( Left lateral ) (Left side of body next to film ---xray beam >> thru right to left )
Oblique View body at angle
Supine lying face up (on back )
Prone lying face down ( on abs)
Fluoroscope use of fluoroscent screen that shows images of objects insreted between tube an screen
Transducer sound waves are emitted from its head during ultrasound
MRI Magnetic resonance imaging , non-invasive procedure where patient lies inside a cylinder -shaped machine in which there is an electromagnet.
CT computerized tomography , a non-invasive procedure that uses a smal amount of radiation and beams that produces a series of cross sectional images
PET Positron emission tomography, a radiographic procedure using a computer and radioactive substance
Radiopaque xrays do not penetrate easily (ie: lead ) , opaque = obscure
Radiolucent x- ray " passes -thru " lucent = means to to shine
"plain films" = Flat plates
Non-invasive not entering the human body , not cutting
Dosimeter Small badge -like device worn to measure the amount of xray exposure
non-invasive not entering the body
radiolucent xrays penetrtate easily in (clear )
tube is the part of x-ray machine that produces x-rays
why is exposure to x-ray dangerous ? radiation can --- destroy tissue, harmful to developing embryos, can damage eyes, and bone marrow, and skin
if x-ray does not penetrate a structure easily, is termed ? radiopaque
what test is performed in order to to study colon for disease ? barium enema
diagnostic imaging : is non-invasive procedure
which radiologic procedures does not require a contrast medium ? mamogram , does not require a contrast medium
ture or false ? contrast mediums are radiopaque and help to obtain a radiogrpahic image of internal organ or structure that ordinarily would be difficultto see because the contrast media causes the organs or structures to absorb more radiation ? true
A cholecystogram requires what kind of contrast medium ? oral tablets , patient takes dye tablets with 8 oz of water
cholangiogram will examine ? bile ducts, viwing bile ducts for possible lesions or calculi.. patient will have a cleaning enema one hour before exam. meal preceding an enema is withheld. contrast is injected and radiograph of bile ducts is taken
in which of the following does the Posterior aspect of the body face the x-ray tube and the anterior face the film ? posteroanterior
the radiologic procedure of choice for the brain imaging is ? MRI, high quality , no inoizing radiation is used, and is safe, non-invasive, and painless. All body areas can be viewed by the MRI, but it is especially helpful for soft tissues. it is very good for spine, pelvis, joints and BRAIN.
describe the 4 types of contrast mediums ? BS-IC-AIR-CDiox Barium sulfate, Iodine compounds, Air, Carbon-Dioxide.
Barium sulfate chalky when mixed w/ water can be swallowed or enema
Barium --upper gi barium flavored drink mix while standing in front of fluorscope.
Barium --lower gi barium enema, Colon is filled with bariuim sulfate mix. the patient is turne din various positions to allow barium to fill the colon. once the colon is full, the x-ray is taken
Ask patient if has allergy to iodine , iodine salts ? if patient does not remember if allergic to iodine , or iodine salts ? then ask if has allergies to fish or shell fish ?
Allergy to iodine, iodine salts, ---foods ( shellfish ) or fish ? because iodine in water is red seas, or red-tide sickness from fish......patient may not know if allergic to iodine , but may know if they get sick when they eat fish or shellfish
X-rays were discovered by Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen in what year ? 1895
Roentgen noticed that the x-rays were able to pass through human skin, paper and wood and other solid materials, true or false ? true
roentgen did not know what to call xrays so he called them "X" rays
Radiographs are also know as X-rays, true or false ? true
x-rays are a valuable diagnostic tool used to visualize what ? internal organs and structures when searching for Disease and Disorders
X-rays are also a vaulable tool for Therapeutic tools because they can be used to treat cancer-ous neplasms, true or false ? true
Radiology uses Xrays --- radioactive subtances ---- ultraviolet rays , True or false ? true
The 3 types fo specilaties in which radiology can be classified? Diagnostic radiology ---Radiation therapy --- and Nuclear medicine
Xrays for fractured bones ---do not require prepping? true or false ? true
3 main parts of x-ray machines ? Tube --- Table --- Control panel
Exposure to radiation can destroy tissue or permanently damage what ? eyes --- bone marrow ---- and skin . Also harmful to embryo and fetus--casuing severe anomalies or death.
personel who work with xrays wear a radiation ID badge called ? Dosimeter ?
A Dosimter is a film strip that measures amount of x-ray a person is exposed to , true or false ? true
the dosimeter film is read on a regaulr basis and radiation exposure is reported to a supervisor. true or false ? true
ROENTGEN , measures ? radiation in the air, --all around us --everywhere.
RAD, measures ? absorbed energy from radiation
REM, measures ? biological damage from radiation
pregnant women and her fetus are receiving radiation dose all the time, from natural sources pregnant women and her fetus are receiving radiation dose all the time, from natural sources
a conservative limit is placed on pregnant workers, to keep the dose to a fetus less than 500 mrem and keep the dose uniform through out the pregnancy. a conservative limit is placed on pregnant workers, to keep the dose to a fetus less than 500 mrem and keep the dose uniform through out the pregnancy.
the fetus has very little risk from the radiation, if kept less than 500 mrem--and kept that low throught pregnancy the fetus has very little risk from the radiation., if kept less than 500 mrem--and kept that low throught pregnancy
patient must wear ? lead aprons over reproductive organs
technicians must wear ? lead aprons and lead gloves if assisting---but shields are not nescessary when standing behind the lead wall working the control panel. walls are lead -lined to absorb scattering -xrays.
Fluroscopy --used to view cardiac,stomach, intestinal structures
Ultrasound (high frequency sound waves) A conducting paste is applied to your abdomen while you are lying down. The transducer (a hand-held instrument) is then moved over your abdomen.
PET positron emisson tomography , with radiopharmaceuticals
radiopharmaceuticals emit positrons. radiopharmaceuticals are chemically designed to go to the --Cardiac, Brain, and certain tumors
CT Computerized tomograph
CT, use small amount of radiation allows what can be seen , normally not seen by x-rays
CT uses computer w/ minimum radiation
CT rotates 360 degrees, early detection of tumors CT rotates 360 degrees, early detection of tumors
CT look for childhood cancers, ab- tumors, tissue tumors
CT contrast is injected in 15-20 mins body can be viewed CT contrast is injected in 15-20 mins body can be viewed
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
MRI, "no" ionizing radiation is used. all bdy areas are viwed , especially ----Brain, spine, pelvis, joints---soft tissue
drawbacks to MRI not as useful as X-ray or CT scan for fractured bones, can not be used on patients with pace-makers, or other metal clips left in place on internal structures or organs.
MRI take 45 minutes MRI take 45 minutes
CT scans take 15-20 minutes CT scans take 15-20 minutes
Ultrasound take 15-45 minutes Ultrasound take 15-45 minutes
PET, You can expect to be in the PET center from 2 - 3 hours. patient can be in the PET -- 1 hour PET, You can expect to be in the PET center from 2 - 3 hours. patient can be in the PET -- 1 hour
Radiation Therapy , treats tumors--which are unable to be removed. Radiation Therapy , treats tumors--which are unable to be removed.
palliative = when used to treat inaccessible or inoperable tumors, the treatment is called palliative
palliative treatment can be either external with direct radiation aimed through the surface of the skin to an area with in the body or internal using "seeds". palliative treatment can be either external with direct radiation aimed through the surface of the skin to an area with in the body or internal using "seeds".
Radionuclides = are compunds that travel to a particular organ, once there , it creates image of that area. Radionuclides = are compunds that travel to a particular organ, once there , it creates image of that area.
what does a radiologist do ? diagnosis specialty using ultrasound---MRI---CT Scans
what is true about radiopaque substance ? absorbs most of the xray it is exposed to
Test used to describe an Xray test that shows an organ in depth ? Tomography
What best describes a CT scan ? using ionizng xrays and computer to produce a transverse image of the body organs
What best describes MRI ? Saggittal , frontal , and cross sectional images are produced using magnetic and radio waves
What is the subtance that gives off high energy particles or rays ? radioisotope
computer tomography -- CT/ scross section image of a specific body segment is produced
Contrast studies --- materials injected to obtain contrast with surrounding tissue
ionization === trasnformation of electrically neutral substances ion diagnosis
labeled compound radiopharmaceuticals
magnetic resonance MR/ magnetic field to form sagittal , coronal and axis images
Positron emssion tomography PET/ radioactive substances given IV and emit positrons
Radiolucent permitting passage of most xrays
Radiopaque obstructing passage of xrays
Roentgenology study of xrays
CHEST PA - LL - RL
HEEL LA
SCAPULA AP - PO
ANKLES AP - LA - OB
TOES AP - OB
FOOT LA - OB
SHOULDER AP
CLAVICLE AP
FOREARM AP - LA
HUMERUS AP - LA
LOWER LEG AP - LA
KNEE AP - LA
FEMUR AP - LA
FINGERS PA - LA - OB
THUMBS PA - LA - OB
HANDS PA - LA - OB
WRISTS PA - LA - OB
ULTRASOUND--- high frequency sound waves excho off parts of the body
transducer is used in what procedure ? Ultrasound
oscilloscope shows a visual pattwrn or picture from echoes--during ultrasoundd
Created by: TONYMILLER