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Final review Lumbar

A portion of the lamina located between the superior and inferior articular processes is called the Pars interarticularis
The superior and inferior vertebral notches join together to form Intervertebral foramina
Which radiographic position best demonstrates the Intervertebral foramina lateral
The small foramina found in the sacrum are called Pelvic sacral foramina
Classification and mobility type of zygapophyseal joints Synovial and Diarthrodial (plane, gliding)
Classification and mobility type of Intervertebral joints Cartilaginous and Amphiarthrodial
To demonstrate the zygapophyseal joints, a patient must be rotated how many degrees 45
What projection are the intervertebral foramina for the lumbar spine visualized True lateral (90 degrees)
Upside or downside joints are visualized on a posterior obliques Downside
An anterior oblique visualizes the downside or upside joints Upside
The upside or left zygapophyseal joints are visualized in what position Right Anterior Oblique (RAO)
The sacrum articulates with the ____ of the pelvis at the ________ Ilium, auricular surface
The anterior and superior aspect of the sacrum that forms the posterior wall of the pelvic inlet is called the promontory
What is another term for the sacral horns Cornu
the SC joints lie at an oblique angle of ____ to the coronal plane 30 degrees
What is the name of the upper broad aspect of the coccyx Base
Lateral curvature of the vertebral column scoliosis
Fracture of the vertebral body caused by hyperflexion force Chance fracture
Congenital defect in which the posterior elements of the vertebrae fail to unite Spina bifida
Most common at the L4-L5 level and may result in sciatica Herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP)
Forward displacement of one vertebra onto another vertebra Spondylolisthesis
Inflammatory condition that is most common in males in their 30's Ankylosing spondylitis
Dissolution and separation of pars interartcularis Spondylolysis
A type of fracture that rarely causes neurologic deficits Compression fracture
The articulating surfaces of the superior and inferior articular processess are called Facets
The Zygapophyseal joints form a ____ degree angle to the midsag plane 45 degree
The intervertebral foramen is formed by ____ and _____ Superior and inferior notches
The posterior portion of the vertebral arch is formed by fusion of the two laminae
The soft, semigelatinous central portion of an intervertebral disk is called the nucleus pulposis
The lumbosacral junction is located at the aprroximate level of the iliac and/or crest anterior superior iliac spine
An abnormal lateral curvature of the spine results in a condition called scoliosis
The iliac crest is at the approximate level of L4
When centering for a lateral projection of the L5-S1 junction the CR should placed ____ inches anterior to the palpated spinous processes 3-4 inches
(True/False) The AP lumbar spine is the best projection for demonstrating the spinous processes False
(True/False) If the patient cannot be placed supine, a PA projection of the lumbar spine may be substituted for the AP, provided that no acute trauma is suspected True
(True/False) For a lateral projection of the lumbar spine, the CR enters 1" anterior to the palpated spinous processes True (1-2")
(True/False) If the central ray is placed at the level of the iliac crest using 14x17" IR for a lateral lumbar spine, L1 may not be demonstrated on the image False
(True/False) For an AP projection of the sacrum, the tube is angles 15 degrees cephalic and enters midway between the ASIS and the iliac crest False (S. Pubis)
(True/False) Radiographic magnification of the sacrum will be greater on a PA projection of the sacrum than on a AP sacrum True
(True/False) The correct image receptor size for a lateral coccyx projection is 10x12" True
When a 14x17" IR is used, an AP lumbar spine should be centered: At the level of the iliac crest
Which of the following are not clearly demonstrated on an AP projection of the lumbar spine? Pedicles
What is the optimal kVp range for an AP projection of the lumbar spine 80 kVp
For AP projections of the lumbar spine, flat contact gonad shields' should not be used for ____ patients Female
The zygophyseal joints on the side nearer the table are clearly demonstrated when the patient is in the ____ position RPO
Which projection best demonstrates the intervertebral foramina of the lumbar spine AP oblique
A lateral lumbar spine image should clearly demonstrate the intervertebral foramina, spinous processes, and disk spaces
If the spine is not parallel to the table for a lateral lumbar spine on a female patient, the CR should be directed 5 degree caudal
The routine IR size for a lateral projection of the L5-S1) junction is ____ inches 10x12
For a lateral projection of the L5-S1 junction, the CR is placed 2" inferior to the ASIS
The tube angle for a lateral projection of the L5-S1 junction is___,____. 5-10 degrees, caudal
Compared with a routine lateral lumbar spine, the lateral projection of the L5-S1 junction usually requires More kVp
To open the L5-S1 joint space in the AP Axial projection, the tube should be angles cephalic 35 degree
For scoliosis examinations of the lumbar spine, the PA projection is preferred over the AP because PA: Results in lower patient dose
Weight bearing images of the lumbar spine are taken primarily to demonstrate degree of mobility after spinal fusion
Hyperflexion images of the lumbar spine are taken by having the patient bend ___ as much as possible Forward
To determine motion in the area of a spinal fusion of the lumbar spine, which of the following exams is indicated Upright lateral flexion and extension
Which of the following is correct concerning the AP projection of the sacrum 15 degree cephalic angle of CR
The LPO of the lumbar spine demonstrates what structure and what side Zygapophyseal joints, left side
What other view would demonstrate essentially the same structure of the LPO (left joints). RAO, Left joints
On an AP projection of the lumbar spine utilizing 11x14 cassette, the central ray should be directed to _____. Level of Iliac crest
Why is an additional film of L5-S1 necessary in a lumbar spine To open joint space of L5-S1
The main purpose of the 45 degree obliques for the C-spine is to demonstrate the Intervertebral Foramina
The main purpose of the 90 lateral for the cervical spine is to demonstrate the spinous process as well a profile view of the vertebral and specifically demonstrating the Z joints
The area on the lumbar vertebra where the pedicles and lamina unite and from which superior and inferior articular process arise is the termed the Pars interarticular
The area of the sacrum that articulates with the ilium of the pelvis to form the sacroiliac joints is the _______ surface of the sacrum Auricular
List the degree of obliquity for the Z joints of the lumbar spine from Top to Bottom 50 degree Top and 30 degree bottom
What view best demonstrates the intervertebral foramen of the lumbar spine Lateral
The female sacrum is _____ than the male sacrum wider and less curved than the male
What view best demonstrates the right Z joints of the T-spine RAO / LPO
Type of fracture that runs a course of approximately 45 degrees to the long axis of the bone and is caused by angulation Oblique fracture
Type of fracture runs at right angle to the long axis of a bone Transverse fracture
Type of fracture composed of more than two fragments Comminuted fracture
Which vertebrae are fused? Sacral and coccyx
Which vertebra/vertebrae are involved in the yes movement of the head C1
What is the minimum filtration requirement according to NCRP for a diagnostic unit operating at above 70kVp 2.5 mm AL
Name three ways to increase image contrast Lower kV, Increase beam restriction, Air gap tech.
What is grid radius Distance between the tube and the grid
What does the grid do to the radiographic image reduce amount of scatter that reaches the IR
To visualize the Intervertebral foramina of the T spine The patient must be in a ___ position 90 degree Rt or Lt lateral
What oblique is necessary to open the z joints on the T spine 70 degree
topographical landmark: ASIS S1-2
topographical landmark: Xiphoid process T9-10
topographical landmark: Lower costal margin L2-3
topographical landmark: Iliac crest L4-5
Which two structures can be evaluated whether rotation is present on a x-ray of an AP projection of a L spine SI joints equal distance from spine, Spinous process should be midline to vert. column
How much rotation is required to properly visualize the Z joints at the L5-S1 level 30 degrees
Which specific set of Z joints is demonstrated with an LAO position Right upside
The ____, which is the eye of the "scottie dog" should be near the center of the vertebral body on a correctly obliqued L spine Pedicle
Created by: Jim Kelly Jim Kelly