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Public Speaking 1

Public Speaking notes Exam 1

Frame of reference -sum of person's knowledge, experience, goals, values, attitudes. -speech is filtered through audience's frame of reference
Public Speaking v. Conversation, similarities (4) -organizing thoughts logically -tailoring message to audience -telling story for maximum impact -adapting to feedback
Public Speaking v. Conversation, differences (3) -public speaking more highly structured -public speaking requires more formal language -public speaking different method of delivery
Reducing speech anxiety (6) -power of visualization -know that most nervousness is not visible -don't expect perfection -prepare, prepare, prepare -think positively
Questions to consider for informative speaking (5) -is the info communicated accurately? -is the info communicated clearly? -is the info made meaningful and interesting to the audience?
4 speech topics -objects (visible, tangible, stable) -processes (specific series of actions that leads to an end result) -events (things that happened) -concepts (abstract beliefs, theories, ideals)
Choosing a topic (2 questions) -what do you know? -what do you want to know about?
Specific purpose guidelines (5) -full infinite phrase -statement, not question -avoid figurative language -limit to one distinct idea -avoid being vague
Questions to ask when writing an informative speech (5) -does it meet the assignment? -can I accomplish this purpose in the time allotted? -is the purpose relevant to my audience? -is the purpose too trivial for my audience? -is the purpose too technical?
Central Idea -one sentence statement -encapsulate major ideas of speech
Central Idea Guidelines (4) -express as full sentence -don't express as question -avoid figurative language -don't be vague
Informative Speech Guidelines (5) -don't be too technical -avoid abstractions -personalize ideas -don't overestimate what audience knows -relate subject to audience
Avoiding Abstractions -make more understandable... break down statistics. ex: "1/5 of the people in this class..." instead of "45% of people..."
Audience Centered Questions (3) -to whom am I speaking -what do I want them to know, believe, or do? -What is most effective way of accomplishing that aim?
Demographic Audience Analysis (6) -age -gender -sexual orientation -racial, ethnic, cultural background -religion -group membership
Situational Audience Analysis (5) -size -physical setting -disposition toward topic -disposition toward speaker -disposition toward occasion
Questions to consider for informative speaking (3) -is the info communicated accurately? -is the info communicated clearly? -is the info made meaningful and interesting to the audience?
Organization 1. Central Idea (w/ preview) 2. MP1, MP2, MP3
Main Points (6) -Mutually exclusive -balanced -logically divided -parallel structure when possible -clearly related to central idea -appropriate level of generality
Ordering MP: chronological -according to time pattern
Ordering MP: spatial -according to a physical space or directional pattern
Ordering MP: causal -according to a cause-effect relationship
Ordering MP: topical -according to subtopics, logical categories, or components
Supporting material -material designed to support a speaker's ideas
connectives -words or phrases that connects ideas of a speech and indicates the relationship between them
transitions -idea leaving and idea stating need to be connected w/ transition
internal previews -statement in the body of the speech that lets the audience know what the speaker is going to discuss next
internal summaries -statements in the body of the speech that summarizes the speaker's preceding point
sign posts brief statement that indicates where speaker is at or that focuses attention on key ideas
intro (10) -relate topic to audience -state importance of topic -startle/ intrigue the audience -arouse curiosity -question the audience (using "you" in the question) -begin with a quote -tell a story -reveal topic -establish credibility -preview body
conclusion -signal end of speech -reinforce the central idea -summarize speech -end w/ quote -make dramatic statement -refer to the intro
ethics (4) -truthful/ honest speech *no omitting facts *proper stats -be prepared *no assumptions *quality info -ethical goals -respect
Main point -parallel wording -fit w/ central idea -balanced amount of material
Created by: 518732976