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8th Grade Chapter5

Atoms and Bonding

when an atom loses an electron it becomes a positive ion
each family in the periodic table has its own characteristic properties based on the number of valence electrons
an ionic bond is the attraction between oppositely charged ions
polyatomic ions ions that are made of more than one atom
ionic compounds form hard, brittle crystals with characteristic shapes
ionic compounds conduct electricity when dissolved in water
covalent bond a chemical bond formed when two atoms share electrons
a double bond two pairs of electrons shared between two atoms
s property shared by most molecular compounds low melting point
molecular compounds do not conduct electricity because they do not break up into ions
a covalent bond in which electrons are shared unequally is polar
in a chemical formula for an ionic compound the positive ion is written first
electrons involved in bonding between atoms are valence electrons
the greatest number of valence electrons an atom can have is 8
what happens when water and oil are poured into the same container the liquids do not mix
ionic compounds are electrically neutral
malleable means that metals can be rolled into thin sheets or beaten into complex shapes
alloy a mixture that is made of two elements, one that is a metal, and has the properties of metal
ad advantage of alloys over pure metals alloys resist rust
steel is an alloy combined with iron
examples of alloys brass and steel
a metal crystal positive metal ions surrounded by freely moving valence electrons
ductile means that metals can be pulled into thin strands or wires
metallic bond the attraction between a positive metal ion and the electrons surrounding it
a strong alloy containing carbon, iron, and another metal like chromium or nickel used to make construction equipment is steel
steel has strength, is resistant to rust, and does not readily react with water
valence electrons shown on electron dot diagrams, transferred or share in bonding, and are loosely held by the nucleus
Created by: Mrs. Gordon