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CI 152

Motiavtion and Self-esteem

Arise directly from the behavior—the behavior provides its own motivation: intrinsic motivators
Rewards artificially associated with the behavior: extrinsic motivators
One may initially act because of an extrinsic motivator (a reward), but in time act because the behavior itself is rewarding. Allport called this: the transition to "functional autonomy"
While one of the best single predictors of achievement, leaves much unexplained: intelligence
Arousal maintains that for every activity there is... an optimal level of behavior
If the arousal is too low, the learner becomes distracted
If the arousal is too high, the learner becomes anxious
The difficulty is that what is too much or too little arousal is... very individual
People often manage their own arousal by... increasing arousal when it’s too low, and avoiding arousal when it’s too high
Every motive consists of: a need and a drive
The need exists because of a: deficit—physiological, or psychological
The prompting to act to address the need: the drive
If one acts on the deficit, the drive is... reduced
This theory maintains that motivation can only be understood by recognizing what needs have not yet been satisfied. Maslow's Hierarchy (basic needs first, then higher needs)
The need for food, shelter, safety, love, belonging, esteem: deficiency needs (can be satisfied)
The need to know, understand, for the aesthetic: growth needs (Maslow says they can never be satisfied, they become more compelling)
The child is attempting to preserve a sense of self-worth: Self-worth Theory
Most children would rather be thought lazy than low ability, so if they are insecure about their ability... they don't try
People experience dissonance (conflict) when a deeply held personal belief is contradicted. Cognitive Dissonance (Festinger)
When people develop beliefs that will explain away the evidence, reject the contradictory information, or change their beliefs—(this is least likely.) How people cope with dissonance
Learners tend to attribute outcomes to factors they control, or those they do not. Attribution Theory
Attribution Theory attempts to understand motivation from the standpoint of learner attribution, or... locus on control
The learner’s attribution is understood by analyzing... how learners explain outcomes (Attribution Theory)
Attributions: I'm unlucky, the teacher doesn't like me, too many distractions, dumb test: external locus
Attributions: I didn't study enough, I studied wrong material, I should have taken better notes: internal locus
Has little motive to change what he does since he is convinced that the result reflects factors he can’t control. one with an external locus
The business of altering locus of control: attribution training
In attribution training one must recognize the connection between: his effort and the outcome
The general striving for success: Achievement Motivation
What is most relevant in the classroom: achievement motivation is most relevant in the classroom
Competitors of achievement motivation: affiliation motivation, etc...
These persist in the face of difficulty and blame lack of success on effort: those with high achievement motives
The two are correlated, but any causal relationship is difficult to analyze: achievement motivation and self-esteem
It appears that boosting self-esteem... does not necessarily increase achievement.
Increasing achievement may prompt... an increase in self-esteem
When possible, allow students to... set their own goals
Use criterion-referenced, rather than... norm-referenced assessments
Acknowledge... effort
Design tasks that call upon abilities which are... important to the students
In spite of the conventional wisdom, the impact of teacher expectations on achievement motivation is: relatively modest
These encourage students to do better: positive expectations
These appear to depress students’ performance: negative expectations
Teacher's expectations on student's achievement motivation is great enough that teachers should be concerned about what they communicate by: attention, patience, body language, kinds of assigned tasks
Created by: Neukay