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Psych 110 spring2010

Final

QuestionAnswer
Know IDS melodies Attention: variable pitch with an upswing Approval: up and down Comforting: low pitch with a gradual onset Prohibiting: Low pitch sudden onset
How does IDS change as the child gets older? How does it help the child eventually learn language? It becomes important for language development through a series of stages: 1)  Emotional salience 2)  Acoustic highlighting of specific words
What is aphasia? Aphasia refers to a condition in which there is severe language impairment.
Broca’s aphasia? serious impairment in language production due to damage of Broca’s area. Characterized by omission of most pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, auxiliary verbs, tense and number endings during speech production and telegraphic speech.
Wernicke’s aphasia? characterized by the impaired ability to remember the names of objects and also impaired language comprehension, difficulty understanding spoken and written speech; it is sometimes called “fluent aphasia” because the person can still speak smoothly.
What is intelligence? Intelligence is the aggregate, or global capacity to act purposefully, think rationally, and deal effectively with the environment.
What is the WAIS? Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale IQ test
The Ravens Progressive Matrices? To test for abstract reasoning skills
What do WAIS and RPM measure? IQ which is crystallized intelligence and fluid intelligence
11. What are some key components associated with creativity? Expertise, Imaginative Thinking: The ability to see things in novel ways, A Venturesome Personality: A personality that seeks new experiences rather than following the pack. Intrinsic Motivation, A Creative Environment
1. According to Freud, what role did the unconscious mind play in shaping personality? Personality develops as a result of our efforts to resolve conflicts between our biological impulses (id) and social restraints (superego).
5. Describe and give an example of the defense mechanisms discussed in class. Regression, Rationalization: offer self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one’s actions, Projection: disguise one’s impulses by attributing them to others. Repression
16. What are the “Big 5” traits? Be able to describe the “poles” of each trait dimension. Conscientiousness: Organized, Carful, Disiplined Agreeableness: Soft hearted, Trusting, Helpful Neuroticism: Calm, Secure,Self-satisfying Openness: Imaginitive, variety-preference for routine, Independent Extraversion: Sociable, Funloving, Affecionate.
What is the chameleon effect? Adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
Know some conditions that strengthen conformity One is made to feel incompetent or insecure. The group has at least three people. The group is unanimous. One admires the group’s status and attractiveness. The group observes one’s behavior.
What are the two reasons for conforming discussed in class? Normative Social Influence: Influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid rejection. Informational Social Influence: The group may provide valuable information. We have to recognize that we are not always right.
What is social facilitation? Improved performance on tasks in the presence of others.
What is social loafing? The tendency of an individual in a group to exert less effort toward attaining a common goal than when tested individually.
What is deindividuation? The loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
What are some examples of multiple intelligences? Spatial, musical, linguistic, logical-mathematical, bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, and interpersonal
What is group polarization? Enhances a group’s prevailing attitides through a discussion.
What is parental investment theory? Any investing by the parent in an offspring that increases the offspring’s chance of surviving at the cost of the parent’s ability to invest in other offspring.
Why are there sex differences in choosiness? Females produce relatively limited supply of large, expensive, sedentary gametes. Males produce relatively unlimited supply of small, cheap, mobile gametes. Females are more likely to be the choosy sex and males are more likely to be the competitive sex.
Findings regarding facial attractiveness? The face plays a central role in human social interactions and is important for judgments of the attractiveness of the ‘whole person’
Are men always seeking short-term mating opportunities? No because that increases survival of child, paternity certainty, and odds at attracting a mate.
What is paternity certainty? Certainty of paternity. Men place a premium on cues of fidelity.
What do men look for in a mate? Signals of youth and health (clear skin, facial femininity, symmetrical features, small WHR) and fertility or reproductive value.
How does the menstrual cycle impact mate preferences? Preferences for facial features. More EPC’s with high fitness males and prefer indicators of good genetic quality.
What are John Gottman’s findings regarding emotional predictors of divorce? Facial expressions are key in what one is feeling, stonewalling, criticism.
Know the terms used in the medical model. 1. Etiology: Cause and development of the disorder. 2. Diagnosis: Identifying (symptoms) and distinguishing one disease from another. 3. Treatment: Treating a disorder in a psychiatric hospital. 4. Prognosis: Forecast about the disorder.
What are the 5 axes and what do they attempt to measure? Axis I Is a Clinical Syndrome present? Axis II Is a Personality Disorder or Mental Retardation present? Axis III Is a General Medical Condition also present? Axis IV Are Psychosocial or Environmental Problems also present? Axis V Global Assessment
What is Generalized Anxiety Disorder? Persistent and uncontrollable tenseness and apprehension, autonomic arousal and the inability to identify, and for that matter avoid, the cause of certain feelings.
OCD? Persistence of unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and urges to engage in senseless rituals (compulsions) that cause distress.
PTSD Four or more weeks of the following symptoms constitute post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): 1.  Haunting memories 2. Nightmares 3. Social withdrawal 4. Jumpy anxiety 5.  Sleep problems
What are Phobias (e.g., what is Santa Clausterphobia)? Marked by a persistent and irrational fear of an object or situation that disrupts behavior.
What criteria are required to diagnose someone as having depression? at least four of the these and two weeks of sadness or anhedonia: 1.  weight or appetite change 2.  Sleep disturbances 3.  Psychomotor retardation or agitation 4.  Lethargy and fatigue 5.  worthlessness 6.  cant concentrate 7.  Suicide ideati
What is the social-cognitive perspective on the development of depression? depression arises partly from self-defeating beliefs and negative explanatory styles. The depressed person misinterprets facts in a negative way, focuses on the negative aspects of any situation, and also has pessimistic expectations about the future.
What are some of the treatments for depression? DRUGS : ) SSRI’s SSNRI’s Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, Tricyclic antidepressants, therapy
What is Alzheimer’s disease? Memory System failure
What is schizophrenia? The literal translation is “split mind” which refers to a split from reality. A group of severe disorders characterized by the following: Disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions and inappropriate emotions and actions.
What are some contributing factors associated with schizophrenia? Viral infection during middle of fetal development, season of birth.
Distinguish between the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Positive symptoms: the presence of inappropriate behaviors (hallucinations, disorganized or delusional talking) Negative symptoms: the absence of appropriate behaviors (expressionless faces, rigid bodies, loss of pleasure)
What areas of the brain does it affect? Temporal lobe
What is Bipolar Disorder? Formerly called manic-depressive disorder. An alternation between depression and mania.
What is Major Depressive disorder? occurs when signs of depression last two weeks or more and are not caused by drugs or medical conditions. Signs include sadness or a diminished interest of pleasure in their usual activities (anhedonia).
What is systematic desensitization and what is it effective in treating? Phobias, where you slowly acclimate the person to their irrational phobia.
What is Panic Disorder? Minutes-long episodes of intense dread which may include feelings of terror, chest pains, choking, or other frightening sensations.
What is the DSM-IV? The most recent edition of the manual to describe psychological disorders.
What does WHR signify and what is the ideal ratio? Good fertility, .7
Who was Genie? What can she tell us about language development? A girl who spent her childhood locked in a bedroom. Without human contact and evolving through the areas of speech, people would have infantile language abilities. Mimicing is a large part of learning a language.
What is infant-directed speech? Baby talk, and dumbing down language
Name the areas of the brain involved in language production and communication, and describe their specific functions. Broca’s area: Thinking speech (vocabulary) Wernicke’s area: Hearing Speech motor area: Physically speaking
What is general intelligence? People who score high on one mental test tend to score high on others. The positive correlations between performance on all of these tests suggest that there is a general intelligence factor
What is the g-factor? The general intelligence hierarchy
Who is Charles Spearman? Came up with general intelligence
Who is David Weschsler? created the adult IQ test
Describe crystallized and fluid intelligence and how they develop over the lifespan? Crystallized refers to verbal, scholastic and information. Fluid refers to spatial, speed and associations. Fluid decreases as you age and crystallized increases with age.
How do we assess intelligence? IQ tests and cognitive tests
What is IQ? Intelligence quotient, aka number of correct answers you get on a test.
What is the IQ distribution? 95% of people score within 30 points of 100, 68% score within 15 points of 100. 2% score lower than 70 or higher than 130.
What is the Flynn effect? Over the past 60 years intelligence scores have raised at an average rate of 27 points.
What are some things that intelligence predicts? Academic success, job success and income, life-span, and creativity
10. What is the difference between general intelligence and Howard Gardner’s “multiple intelligences”? General intelligence refers mainly to test scores, grades etc. But multiple intelligence refers to something more abstract that takes multiple facets of intelligence to be good at.
List and define the components of the mind in psychoanalytic theory. The Id unconsciously strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives The ego functions mediates the demands of the id and superego. The superego provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations.
What is the pleasure principle? Seek pleasure avoid pain
What are defense mechanisms? The ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.
What are the major criticisms of Freud’s theory? That people do not repress memories.
What is humanistic psychology? Reaction to psychoanalysis and behaviorism Maslow and Rogers say people are basically good and can improve.
Describe and know each level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs? That we are motivated by a hierarchy of needs. Psysiological needs (food), Safety needs (shelter), Belonging needs (friends), Esteem needs (loving yourself)
What is self-actualization? The highest level, fulfilling our potential
What is conditional positive regard? Loving people based on their failures.
Unconditional positive regard? Loving people regardless of their failures.
Internal vs. external locus of control? We control our fate, something beyond us controls our fate.
What is learned helplessness? The belief that we are unable to avoid repeated bad events.
What are traits? What a personality is made up of.
What is the MMPI? It is developed to identify emotional disorders.
What is the BFI? The big five inventory, a common psychological personality test
How stable are these BFI traits? Quite stable in adulthood, however they may change over development.
Describe Zimbardo’s prison study and some of its implications for social group formation. “Prisoners” were arrested from their homes, finger printed, etc. then take to “jail.” The “guards” were told to deindividualize the prisoners. People act certain ways when put in that environment
What is conformity? Behavior is contagious and we follow other behavior to conform.
Describe Asch’s study on conformity. They were asked questions about the lines. Announce their answers to each question out loud. The fakes always provided their answers first, and always gave the same answer. They answered right then wrong.
What did Asch find? People are likely to conform to obviously incorrect things if three or more other people unanimously agree on something.
What is obedience? Complying to social pressures on command.
Describe Milgram’s study on obedience. The experimenter orders the teacher (subject) to electrically shock the learner every time the learner answers a question incorrectly. The learner is an actor and is not being shocked.
What are some implications for Milgram’s work? That people will continue to obey even though they are hurting others. 65% complied even to the greatest strength of shock.
What is the In-group? People who share a common identity.
Out-group? Those perceived as different from one’s ingroup.
In-group bias? The tendency to favor one’s own group.
Explain how in-group bias can sometimes lead to prejudice. If you favor your own group and find it more superior it can cause people to look down, make judgements and be prejudice against another group.
Explain the bystander effect. Tendency of any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
Explain some ways that could increase the chances that someone would help. Make sure the bystanders hear and are aware of the emergency, seek a specific bystander to help and tell them how to help.
What does the testes size of various primates have to do with the promiscuity rates of females in that species? Bigger testes cause for more promiscuity in females.
How does a woman’s personal resources impact her preference for economic resources in prospective mates? It makes her value high economic status more than those with lower incomes
What are some physical features that women find attractive? Facial attractiveness, symmetry
Masculinity vs. femininity? When women are ovulating they are more attracted to masculine features, and when they are not they are more attracted to feminine features
What is symmetry and what does it reveal about an individual? Symmetry says the better the genetics
What are some benefits of being a symmetrical male? More sexual partners, more EPC and start having sex earlier.
What is positive assortative mating? Preference for similarity of interest and traits ensures cooperative alliance over time, leads to emotional bonding and potential increased survival of children.
Created by: taraboo