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What are Conventional Antipsychotics drugs used for? To relieve positive symptoms of schizophrenia (hallucinations, delusions, agitation, paranoia)
How do conventional antipsychotics work? Block dopamine, muscarinic receptors, histamine, and norepinephrine
List side effects of antipsychotics. Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), Anticholinergic symptoms (dry mouth, constipation, blurred vision, urinary retention), Sedation, Orthostatsis
What are EPS? movement disorders
List four types of EPS. Acute dystonia, Parkinsonism, Akathisia, Tardive Disease (TD)
Describe Acute dystonia. causes laryngospasms, spasms of the face, neck, tongue, and back muscles
Describe Tardive Syndrome. worm-like twisting & writhing of tongue & face, lip smacking & tongue protrusion
What do Atypical Antipsychotics do? Relieve positive & negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
Why do Atypical Antipsychotics work better than conventional drugs? they block more serotonin and less dopamine
Name three atypical antipsychotics. Clozaril (clozapine), Zyprexa, Geodon
What is a serious side effect associated with Clozaril? agranulocytosis
List four types of antidepressants. Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs), Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAO inhibitors), Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs), Serotonin Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs)
How do TCAs work? block the reuptake of norepinephrine & serotonin
List side effects of TCAs. orthostatic hypotension, sedation, anticholinergic effects
What is a serious result of TCA overdose? cardiotoxicity (esp. in patients w/ pre-existing heart condition)
How do Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors work? Inhibit monoamine oxidase (an enzyme found in the brain, liver, and intestines)
What alterations to the diet need to be made when on MAOs? tyramine-rich foods should be avoided (smoked meats, aged cheese, salami, pepperoni, avocados, bologna, figs, imported beer, chianti)
How do SSRIs work? prevent serotonin from being taken up into the presynaptic neuron
What are SSRIs used to treat? anxiety disorders (OCD, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, bulimia, gambling, Premenstrual dysmorphic disorder)
Side effects of SSRIs. sexual dysfunction, weight gain, nausea, headache
What causes serotonin syndrome? SSRI or SNRI toxicity, caused by excessive level sof serotonin
List symptoms of serotonin syndrome. serotonin shake, increased body temp, hyperactive reflexes, confusion, anxiety, hallucinations, death
What else can cause serotonin syndrome? Mixing SSRIs or SNRIs with Triptans (Zomig, Imitrex, or Maxalt)
What causes Serotonin Withdrawal Syndrome? Abrupt discontinuation of SSRIs or SNRIs
What are the symptoms of Serotonin Withdrawal Syndrome? Flu-like symptoms, Lightheadedness, Uneasiness, Shaking & sleepiness, Headache
How do Atypical Antidepressants work? increase level of norepinephrine
What is an FDA warning for atypical antidepressants? increases suicidal thoughts & behaviors
What is Lithium used to treat? Bipolar disorder.
Why should Lithium be held is sodium levels are low? Because Lithium is also a salt, the body will conserve it instead of sodium, if sodium is depleted or low. This can result in Lithium Toxicity.
List mild symptoms of Lithium Toxicity (less than 1.5 lithium level) N/V, diarrhea, thrist, polyuria, weakness, slurred speech
List moderate symptoms of lithlium toxicity (lithium level between 1.5 and 2.0) GI upset, course tremors, confusion, EKG changes, sedation
List severe symptoms of lithlium toxicity (level between 2.1 & 2.5) Ataxia, sedation, serious EKG changes, blurred vision, tinnitus, coma
Created by: littlejohnson



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