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CNS Drugs

QuestionAnswer
What do stimulants do to the body? Increase the activity of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine
What is another name for serotonin agonist? Triptan
What do Triptans do? stimulate serotonin receptors in the brain
What are triptans used to treat? How do they do it?! acute onset of migraines, by constricting cerebral blood vessels
List some serotonin agonists. Imitrex (sumatriptan), Maxalt (rizatriptan), Amerge (naratriptan), Zomig (zolmitriptan)
What drugs should be avoided when taking triptans? Why? Other drugs that increase serotonin such a SSRIs, Demerol, and Ultram as they can cause serotonin syndrome
What are symptoms of serotonin syndrome? muscle tremors, confusion, agitation, increased body temperature, and seizure
List contraindications to triptan use. MI, PVD, HTN, stroke
What do amphetamines do to the body? increase dopamine & norepinephrine production
What medical conditions are amphetamines used to treat? ADHD, narcolepsy
List symptoms of ADHD. hyperactivity, decreased academic performance, disruptive behavior, and inattentiveness
What are potential causes of ADHD? exposure to alcohol/drugs in utero, lead exposure as child, food additives, result in decreased frontal lobe size (the are responsible for impulse control & problem solving abilities), genetics
Name some amphetamines used to treat ADHD Ritalin, Concerta (methyphenidate), Strattera (atomoxetine), Provigil (modafinil)
List side effects of amphetamines. elevated mood, euphoria, manic episode in bipolar patients, tachycardia, chest pain, cardiac dysrhythmias, increased blood pressure, and appetite suppression
What is a down side to using Ritalin or Concerta? They are highly addictive, however not usually for ADHD patients
Why doesn't Strattera have addictive qualities? it affects only norepinephrine, not dopamine
What FDA warning does Strattera have? can increase suicidal thoughts in teenagers
What positive effects occur with moderate consumption of alcohol? decreased cardiovascular disease, increased lung function, decreased risk of some cancers, and decreased risk of dementia
Describe the rate at which alcohol is metabolized in the body. Alcohol is metabolized at a constant rate by the liver and stomach regardless of how much is consumed. Chronic alcohol ingestion induces liver metabolizing enzymes, increasing the amount of alcohol that can be metabolized each hour
How does acute ingestion of alcohol affect the pharmacokinetics of other drugs? causes decreased metabolism of other drugs resulting in increased free drug and effectiveness...and potentially toxicity
How does chronic alcohol ingestion affect the pharmacokinetics of other drugs? causes increased metabolism of other drugs, resulting in decreased free drug and effectiveness, therefore higher doses are required
List mild symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. jumpy, restless, unclear thinking, insomnia, depression/anxiety, rapid mood changes
List serious withdrawal symptoms. tachycardia, HTN, clammy skin, headache, tremors, sweating, seizure, fever, delirium tremens (causes hallucinations & delusions, but rare)
What drugs are used t treat alcohol withdrawal? Benzodiazepines (Ativan (lorazepam), Valium (diazepam)) are the most effective, they increase GABA which quiets the brain.
What is aversion therapy? the use of medication to help patients refrain from drinking
How does Antabuse (disurfiram) work? causes a reaction with alcohol (by inhibiting the enzyme that converts alcohol to its nontoxic form) that causes N/V, chest pain, weakness, palpitations, headache, flushing and hypotension
What does Re Via (naltrexone) do? blocks opioid receptors in the brain, decreasing the alcohol high
Created by: littlejohnson