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med lecturesfinal

chapter 12

chemoreceptors are specialized tissue that respond to chemicals.... CO2,H+,O2, and pH
___________ are probaly the single most important mechanism by which ventilation is regulated chemoreceptors
what are the two types of chemoreceptors? central and peripheral
what are the 2 types of peripheral chemoreceptors carotid bodies, and aortic bodies
where are carotid bodies located, and what are they stimulated by? they are located at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery and are subject to nervous stimulation
where are aortic bodies located and what are they simulated by? they are located within the arch of the aorta and are stimulated by the vagus nerve
peripheral chemoreceptors will respond to..... increase in CO2, increase in H+, decrease in pH, decrease in PO2, decrease in blood flow, and increase in temp
What is the most important mechanism of peripheral chemoreceptors? there response to a low pO2. This sets them apart from the central chemoreceptors.
When is stimulation of peripheral chemoreceptors max? when PO2 is 40-60 torr, stimulation= increase in RR, and increase in tidal volume
peripheral chemoreceptors will be stimulated only with a _____________ in PC02, or ______________ in pH, this stimulation is directly caused by an_____________ in H+ and indirectly caused by CO2 very large increase, decrease, increase
stimulation of peripheral chemoreceptors to decreased blood flow will cause an increase in___________and______________ HR and BP
where are the central chemoreceptors located? In the medulla ( not in the medullary respiratory center!)
What are the central chemoreceptors in contact with? CSF and arterial blood
central chemoreceptors do not respond to what levels in the blood? O2
central chemoreceptors respond directly to what concentration in the CSF H+ concentration (ph)
When central chemoreceptors are stimulated due to H+ increase(decrease ph) in CSF what happens increase in ventilation
when H+ are low (high pH) chemoreceptors cause ventilatory drive and volume to diminish
Blood brain barrier protective mechanism for the brain that seperates CSF and blood
blood brain barrier membrane extremly selectively permeable, relatively impermeable to ions and readily permeable to gases (CO2)
what diffuses easily across the blood brain barrier CO2
H+ and HCO3 can get by the blood brain barrier slowly with active transport
an increase in PCO2 in the blood of the in the blood brain barrier leads to an increase in PCO2 in CSF and increase of H+ in CSF
an increase in PCO2 and H+ in CSF will stimulate the central chemoreceptors to do what increase their respiratory rate and tidal volume
Factors influencing PCO2 of CSF cerebral blood flow, CO2 production rate, CO2 content in artery/vein, and alveolar ventilation
Interaction between the central and peripheral chemoreceptors ventilation normally under control by central chemoreceptors, in presence of disease peripheral c.r may play the dominant role
Hering-Breuer Reflex not normally activated, activated in response to over or under inflation of the lungs, impacts VT and RR, activated to decrease WOB
2 reflexes of Hering Breuer Reflex inflation reflex and deflation reflex
inflation reflex inhibits inspiration
deflation reflex stimulates inspiration when lung volume is low, my be responsible for hyperventilation seen in patients with restrictive lung diseases
J receptors located in the interstitial tissue of the alveolar capillary membrane, they are stimulated by an increase in AC membrane thickness(PNA,pulmonary edema, fibrosis) resutls in increase RR possible hyperventilation or hypocarbia
3 basic function of the kidneys 1) excrete fixed acids (H+)2) Regulate electrolyte concentrations (HCO3-,Na+,Ca+,Cl-)3) regulate blood and fluid volumeall accomplished via nephron network in the kidney
electrolyte charged particle within a solution
Urine formation 3 steps 1) glomerular filtration2)tubular reabsorption3)tubular secretion
Glomerular filtration depends on the adequacey of_____________ to the kidneys perfusion (because it is a hydrostatic process)
kidneys need what percentage of cardiac output, because they have a high O2 consumption, and high metabolic rate, anything that effects cardiac output will affect the filtrate ( ex. diuretics, epi) 20%
Tubular reabsorption happens via active or passive transport
what pe is percentage of fluid that passes into the glom. filtrate is reabsorbed back into the tubular cells of the kidney and then back into blood 99%
Tubular secretion happens via active transport
Tubular secretion is a process by which renal tubular cells secrete electrolytes into the filtrate in exchange for the reabsorption of other electrolytes that the body demands
What is the most abundant electrolyte? Sodium
Created by: qccrespiratory