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Life Span 1-3

Developmental Psychology

A view of human development that takes into account all phases of life, not just childhood or adulthood Life-span perspective
Referring to its nonlinear progression - gains and losses, compensations and deficits, predictable and unexpected changes Multidirectional
Referring to the fact that each human life takes place within a number of contexts - historical, cultural, and socioeconomic Multicontextual
Takes place within many cultural settings worldwide and thus reflects a multitude of values, traditions, and tools for living Multicultural
Encompassing the idea that dozens of academic disciplines contribute data and insight to the science of development Multidisciplinary
Indicates that individuals - including their personalities as well as their bodies and minds - change throughout the life span Plasticity
A process of continual change within a person or group, in which each change is connected systemically to every other development in each individual and every society Dynamic systems
An idea that is built more on shared perceptions of social order than on objective reality Social construction
Comprehensive theories that have traditionally inspired and directed thinking about development. Grand theories
Psychoanalytic theory, behaviorism, and cognitive theory are all what type of theories Grand theories
Capacity to change Plasticity
Human traits can be molded into different forms and shapes yet people maintain durability Plasticity
Theories that focus on some specific area of development and thus are less general and comprehensive than the grand theories Minitheories
Theories that bring together information from many disciplines but that have not yet coherred into theories that are comprehensive and systematic Emergent theories
Freud; birth to 1 year Oral Stage
the mouth, tongue, and gums are the focus of pleasurable sensations in the baby's body, and sucking and feeding are the most stimulating activites. Freud; oral stage
Erikson; Birth to 1 year Trust vs. Mistrust
Babies learn either to trust that others will care for their basic needs, including nourishment, warmth, cleanliness, and physical contact, or to lack confidence in the care of others Erikson; Trust vs. Mistrust
Freud; 1-3 years Anal Stage
The anus is the focus of pleasurable sensations in the baby's body, and toilet training is the most important activity Freud; Anal Stage
Erikson; 1-3 years Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt
Children learn either to be self-sufficient in many activities, including toileting, feeding, walking, exploring, and talking, or to doubt their own abilities Erikson; Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Freud; 3-6 years Phallic Stage
The phallus, or penis, is the most important body part, and pleasure is derived from genital stimulation. Boys are proud of their penises, and girls wonder why they don't have one Freud; Phallic Stage
Erikson; 3-6 years Initiative vs. Guilt
Children want to undertake many adult-like activities, or fear the limits set by parents and feel guilty Erikson; Initiative vs. Guilt
Freud; 6-11 years Latency
This is not a stage but an interlude, during which sexual needs are quiet and children put psychic energy into conventional activities like schoolwork and sports Freud; Latency
Erikson; 6-11 years Industry vs. Inferiority
Children busily learn to be competent and productive in mastering new skills or feel inferior and unable to do anything well Erikson; Industry vs. Inferiority
Freud; Adolescence Genital Stage
The genitals are the focus of pleasurable sensations, and the young person seeks sexual stimulation and sexual satisfaction in heterosexual relationships Freud; Genital Stage
Erikson; Adolescence Identity vs. Role Confusion
Adolescents try to figure out "Who am I?" They establish sexual, political, and career identities or are confused about waht roles to play Erikson; Identity vs. Role Confusion
Freud; Adulthood Freud believed that the genital stage lasts throughout adulthood. He also said that the goal of a healthy life is " to love and to work."
Erikson; Young Adulthood Intimacy vs. Isolation
Young adults seek companionship and love with another person or become isolated from others because they fear rejection and disappointment Erikson; Intimacy vs. Isolation
Erikson; middle-aged adult Generativity vs. stagnation
Middle-aged adults contribute to the next generation through meaningful work, creative activities, and/or raising a family, or they stagnate Erikson; Generativity vs. stagnation
Erikson; Late adulthood Integrity vs. Despair
Older adults try to make sense out of their lives, either seeing life as a meaningful whole or despairing at goals never reached Erikson; Integrity vs. Despair
A grand theory of human development that focuses on the sequences and processes by which behavior is learned Behaviorism
According to behaviorism, any process in which a behavior is learned Conditioning
The process by which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus, so that the organism responds to the former stimulus as if it were the latter Classical conditioning
The process by which a response is gradually learned via reinforcement or punishment Operant conditioning
The process in which a behavior is followed by results that make it more likely that the behavior will be repeated. This occurs in opearant conditioning. Reinforcement
An application of behaviorism that emphasizes that many human behaviors are learned through observation and imitation of other people. social learning theory
In social learning theory, the process in which people observe and then copy the behavior of others. Modeling
In social learning theory, the belief that one is effective; motivates people to change themselves and their contexts. Self-efficacy
A grand theory of human development that focuses on the structure and development of thinking, which shapes people's attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. Cognitive theory
In cognitive theory, a state of mental balance in which a person is able to reconcile new experiences with existing understanding Cognitive equilibrium
Piaget; Birth to 2 years Sensorimotor
Infants use senses and motor abilities to understand the world. Learning is active; there is no conceptual or reflective thought. Characteristics of sensorimotor
Infants learn that an object still exists when it is out of sight and begin to think through mental actions. Major gains during sensorimotor period
Piaget; 2-6 years Preoperational
Children use symbolic thinking, including language, to understand the world. Thinking is egocentric, causing children to understand the world from their own perspective. Preoperational
The imagination flourishes, and language becomes a significant means of self-expression and of influence from others preoperational
Piaget; 6-11 years Concrete operational
Children understand and apply logical operations, or principles, to interpret experiences objectively and rationally. concrete operational
By applying logical abilities, children learn to understand concepts of conversation, numbers, classification, and many other scientific ideas. concrete operational
Piaget; 12 years through adulthood Formal operational
Adolescents and adults think about abstractions and hypothetical concepts and reason analytically, not just emotionally. formal operational
Ethics, politics, and social and moral issues become fascinating as adolescents and adults take a broader and more theoretical approach to experience formal operational
An emergent theory that holds that human development results from the dynamic interaction between each person and the surrounding social and cultural forces. Sociocultural theory
In sociocultural theory, the process by which novices develop cognitive competencies through interaction with more skilled members of the society, often parents or teachers, who act as tutors or mentors. Apprenticeship in thinking
In sociocultural theory, the process by which a skilled person helps a novice learn by providing not only instruction but also a direct, shared involvement in the learning process. guided participation
In sociocultural theory, the range of skills that a learned can exercise and master with assistance but cannot yet perform independently. According to Vygotsky, learning can occur within this zone. zone of proximal development
An emergent theory of development that emphasizes the interaction of genes and the environment- that is, both the genetic origins of behavior and the direct, systematic influence that environmental forces have, over time, on genes Epigenetic theory
The belief that every aspect of development is set in advance by genes and then is gradually manifested in the course of maturation. preformism
The idea that humans and other animals gradually adjust to their environment selective adaptation
The study of patterns of animal behavior, particularly as that behavior relates to evolutionary origins and species survival ethology
Psychoanalytic theory - Area of focus Psychosexual-Freud or psychosocial-Erikson stages
Psychoanalytic theory - Fundamental Depiction of what people do Battle unconscious impulses and overcome major crises
Psychoanalytic theory - Relative Emphasis on Nature or Nurture More nature (biological, sexual impulses, and parent-child bonds)
Behaviorism theory - Area of focus Conditioning through stimulus and response
Behaviorism theory - Fundamental Depiction of what people do Respond to stimuli, reinforcement, and models
Behaviorism theory - Relative Emphasis on Nature or Nurture More Nurture (direct environment produces various behaviors)
Cognitive theory - Area of focus Thinking, remembering, analyzing
Cognitive theory - Fundamental depiction of what people do Seek to understand experiences while forming concepts and cognitive strategies
Cognitive theory - Relative emphasis on Nature or Nurture More nature (person's own mental activity and motivation are key)
Sociocultural theory - Area of focus Social context, expressed through people, language, customs
Sociocultural theory - Fundamental depiction of what people do Learn the tools, skills, and values of society through apprenticeships
Sociocultural theory - Relative emphasis on Nature or Nurture More nurture (interaction of mentor and learner, within cultural context)
Epigenetic theory - Area of focus Genes and factors that repress or encourage genetic expression
Epigenetic theory - Fundamental depiction of what people do Develop impulses, interests, and patterns inherited from ancestors
Epigenetic theory - Relative emphasis on Nature or Nurture Begins with nature; nurture is crucial, via nutrients, toxins, and so on
Made us aware of the importance of early childhood experiences Psychoanalytic theory
Shown the effect that the immediate environment can have on learning, step by step Behaviorism
Brought a greater understanding of how intellectual processes and thinking affect actions Cognitive theory
Reminded us that development is embedded in a rich and multifaceted cultural context Sociocultural theory
Emphasizes the interaction between inherited forces and immediate contexts Epigenetic theory
The approach taken by most developmentalists, in which they apply aspects of each of the various theories of development rather than adhering exclusively to one theory eclectic perspective
A general term for the traits, capacities, and limitations that each individual inherits genetically from his or her parents at the moment of conception Nature
A general term for all environmental influences that affect development after an individual is conceived Nurture
The molecular basis of heredity, constructed of a double helix whose parallel strands consist of both pairs held together by hydrogen bonds DNA
A carrier of genes; one of the 46 molecules of DNA that each cell of the body contains and that, together, contain all human genes Chromosome
The full set of chromosomes, with all the genes they contain, that make up the genetic material of an organism Genome
The basic unit for the transmission of heredity instructions gene
A reproductive cell; that is, a cell that can reproduce a new individual if it combines with one from the other sex Gamete
The single cell formed from the fusing of a sperm and an ovum zygote
An organism's entire genetic inheritance, or genetic potential genotype
A slight, normal variation of a particular gene Allele
The chromosome pair that, in humans, determines the zygote's sex, among other things 23rd Pair
Twins who have identical genes because they were formed from one zygote that split into two identical organisms very early in development Monozygotic twins
Twins who were formed when two separate ova were fertilized by two separate sperm at roughly the same time Dizygotic twins
Processes in which certain genes code for proteins that switch other genes on and off, making sure that the other genes produce proteins at the appropriate times on-off switching mechanism
A person's actual appearance and behavior, which are the result of both genetic and environmental influences Phenotype
Referring to inherited traits that are influenced by many factors, including factors in the environment, rather than by genetic influences alone Multifactorial
Referring to inherited traits that are influenced by many genes, rather than by a single gene Polygenic
A gene that, through interaction with other genes, affects a specific trait (such as skin color or height) additive gene
The member of an interacting pair of alleles whose influence is more evident in the phenotype Dominant gene
The member of an interacting pair of alleles whose influence is less evident in the phenotype Recessive gene
Referring to a gene that is located on the X chromosome X linked
Referring to a condition in which a person has a mixture of cells, some normal and some with the incorrect number of chromosomes Mosaic
A genetic disorder in which part of the X chromosome is attached to the rest of it by a very thin string of molecules fragile X syndrome
Created by: blueangel0693
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