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The efficiency of external respiration is dependant on what (3) factors? 1)Alveolar ventilation, Is it adequate? 2)matching of V/Q 3)membrane diffusion across A.C membrane
3 factors involved in oxygen delivery 1)O2 loading 2)O2 unloading 3)O2 transport
O2 loading "external" respiration gas exchange of 02 and CO2 from the atmosphere to the alveoli at the AC membrane
02 unloading " internal" respiration gas exchange at systemic capilaries(blood and tissues)
02 transport requires a normal Hgb concentration as well as an adequate cardiac output
Why does V/Q mismatch occur even in the normal lung? There is a normal physiologic shunt of 3% in the normal healthy adult. 2% of cardiac output bypasses the lung,and 1% relative capillary shunting also occurs
what is the normal vd/vt ratio in a spontaneous breathing individual .40 with a somewhat higher ratio being acceptable for patients on mechanical ventilatory support
The distribution of ventilation in the lung depends on regional differences in ----------and -------------. CL and RAW
A vd/vt ratio of .7 means that: 70% of the vt is lost to vd. The patient would need to be placed on mechanical ventilation. Their lungs are not ventilating adequately.
Cardiac output = stroke volume X heartrate
At residual volume most gas entering the lungs would go to the apices or bases? apices
Most gas inhaled during normal breathing from normal FRC enters the apices or bases? bases
Will a change in FRC affect the distribution of ventilation? Yes
A patient's minute ventilation is 10 lpm, her respirator rate is 22, and her PaCO2 is 55 mmHg. You would expect that she may be experiencing: increased deadspace ventilation,increased work of breathing, and decreased alveolar ventilation
A pulmonary embolus would increase shunt or deadspace in the affected area? Deadspace
A totally atelectatic alveolus would increase shunt or deadspace in the affected area? shunt
Normal anatomic shunt is approximately what percent of cardiac output 2%
What diffuses about 20x faster than O2 across the a-c membrane? CO2
what are the 2 major requirements for successful pulmonary diffusion? 1) adequate time for for gases to equilibrate across the Alveolar capillary membrane2) their needs to be enough surface area to permit gas exchange at the alveolar capillary membrane
Hgb tends to combine 4 oxygen molecules or none, true or false true
what is the normal value range for hemoglobin in males? 15 g/100ml
What is the normal value range for hemoglobin in females? 13-14 g/100ml
physiological deadspace the sum of all alveolar and anatomic deadspace
shunt blood is perfused but not ventilated
anatomic deadspace the quantity of gas remaining in the airway at the end of each breath
anatomic shunting the pleural, bronchial and thebesian largely veins contribute to this form of normal shunting
mechanical deadspace represented by the volume of exhaled gas remaining within a ventilator circuit or an oxygen mask, which is then inspired on the next breath
relative capillary shunting this form of shunting would be represented by an alveolus at which the volume of perfusion exceeds the volume of ventilation to the alveolus
what is the numerical difference between the normal total base in a blood sample and the actual amount of base in the sample? base excess
Created by: qccrespiratory