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Geog 101 final

final exam

Concept of Succession Represents a gradual developmental process that forms new plant and animal communities within a dynamic ecology.
Ecological Succession Occurs when more complex communities of plants and animals replace older, simpler communities. PRIMARY areas of bare rock or soil where no traces of a previous community exists. (Moss)SECONDARY can occur if remnants of a previous community are present.
Resilience Stability may not foster the ability to recover from disturbance or change.Disturbed stable ecosystems tend to recover slowly or not at all.
Biodiversity "Species richness" defined by:-Species populations (quantity of species)-Species genetic diversity (# of characteristics)-habitat types
Organisms that share the same basic foods share the same... trophic level
Decomposers digest and recycle organic debris and wastes in the environment, and release the nutrients.
consumers organisms that depend on producers for their carbon.(herbivores are primary, carnivores are secondary)
producers organisms that use carbon dioxide as their whole source of carbon
biotic ecosystem operations -producers-consumers-decomposers-generally structured in a complex network of interconnected food chains called a FOOD WEB
cycles 1. carbon cycle2. oxygen cycle3. nitrogen cycle
gases most abundant natural elements in living matter are hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon. 99% of all biomass.
abiotic components 1. light2. climate3. hydrologic cycle4. water quality5. life zones
light solar energy enters ecosystems by photosynthesis, heat is dissapated by numerous subsequent processes
climate factors can include air and water temperature, seasonal variability, duration and pattern of minimum and maximum temperatures, average temperature.
hydrologic cycle affects water availability
water quality mineral content, salinity, pollutants
life zones concept developed by Alexander von Humboldt to describle the relationship between altitude and plant communities
biomass the net dry weight of organic material which can be mapped in terms of fixed carbon per square meter per year
net primary productivity the amount of stored chemical energy (biomass) that a plant community can generate through photosynthesis for an entire ecosystem
net photosynthesis total number of photosynthetic production MINUS respiration equals this.
respiration -simply the reverse of photosynthesis-plants oxidize carbs and release carbon dioxide, water, and energy as heat-plant growth depends on surplus of CARBS
photosynthesis -unites carbon dioxide & hydrogen (from water) and requires visable light. plants release oxygen & organic matter to atmosphere. plants remove carbon from atmosphere by combining carbon, hydrogen & oxygen. these carbs form simple sugars used by plants.
the fate of the biosphere rests on the success of _____ and the ability to capture sunlight. PLANTS
system an ordered, interrelated set of things and their specific attributes. linked by flows of energy
niche function or occupation of a life form within a community:-habitat niche-trophic niche (food)-reproductive niche
habitat physical location of an organism. (the type of environment it resides within)
community biotic subdivision within an ecosystem
ecology study of relationships between organisms and their environment and among ecosystems
ecosystem a self-regulating association of living plants and animals and their non-living physical environment
biogeography study of the distribution of plants and animals, their spatial organization, and natural processes that produce these patterns
tropical montane forest -cooler and moister than lowland tropical forests because of latitude or altitude-height is much lower than lowland forests-dominated by slender trees that possess small leaves
tropical seasonal forest -contains smaller trees than in equatorial rain forest-has more open canopy than in the rainforest and a densely vegetated forest floor
tropical evergreen forest -occurs in areas with consistently high rainfall throughout the year-lush vegetation and animal diversity-contains canopy of foliage with trees-canopy shades forest floor inhibiting development of undergrowth
tropical biomes -high solar radiation year round-consistant rainfall in equatorial regions, but a dry season exists-broadleaf evergreen trees, savanna in most extreme dry season- central & S. america, africa, SE asia, hawaii.
leaf persistance EVERGREEN: leaves remain on tree at all timesDECIDUOUS: leaves are shed to avoid desiccation in dry or cold seasons
leaf shape BROADLEAF: flat leaf blades born by angiospermsNEEDLELEAF: needle shaped leaves of gymnosperms. cone-bearing plants dominant on poor soils or colder areas.
grassland -woody species absent, herbaceous plants produce continuous groundcover.-rainfall limited and often seasonal
shrubland -trees absent-dense or sparse collection of short woody species with multiple stems-less rainfall than in savanna
woodland/savanna -sparse collection of trees with seperate crowns and grass understory-rainfall often seasonal and variable but less than in most forests
forest dense collections of trees with touching crowns forming a closed canopy in most places.(rainfall is more abundant than in other biome types)
life zone concept describes the relationship between altitude and plant communities
ecotones represent a coundary transition zone between ecosystems or biomes
terrestrial biome a large, stable terrestrial ecosystem characterized by specific plant and animal communities
terrestrial ecosystem a self-regulating association of plants, animals and abiotic components that is characterized by specific plant formations.
hydrology science of water and its properties, distribution, and circulation
drainage patterns they are determined by:-slope-differences in rock resistance-climatic & hydrologic variability-structural controls on the landscape
continential divide hydrological divide of the Americas that separates the watersheds that drain into the Pacific Ocean from those river systems that drain into the Atlantic Ocean and those river systems that drain into the Arctic Ocean.
interfluve a small high region between individual stream channels that directs overland flow within a watershed
watershed the area of land where all of the water that is under it or drains off of it goes into the same place.
river basin the portion of land drained by a river and its tributaries. It encompasses all of the land surface dissected and drained by many streams and creeks that flow downhill into one another, and eventually into one river. The final destination is an ocean.
base level -level below which a stream can no longer erode its channel or the walley that it flows within.-the ultimate base level is SEA LEVEL
local base level can represent a temporary limit on local stream erosion
stream gradient -the decline in elevation from headwaters to the mouth of a stream.-can be affected by techtonic uplift or a change in base level
alluvium general term for sand, silt, and clay transported by running water
fluvial geomorphology the study of stream-related landforms and processes
the most important types of streamflow information that are commonly collected: 1. stream atage2. cross-section3. velocity4. discharge
stream stage the water depth above an arbitrary fixed point on or beside the stream bed
stilling wells provides an automated means of recording changes in stream stage
stream velocity(speed of the water) average velocity is the time it takes a given particle of water to traverse a given distance
discharge describes the total volume of water transported by a stream system over a certain period of time
flood a high water event where a stream overflows its natural or artificial banks
flood frequency the statistical return interval of a high water event
hydrograph a graph of stream discharge during a specific period of time in a specific location
base flow maintains streamflow during dry periods
stream channels constantly redistribute materials and energy working towards equilibrium
straight channels narrow with high velocities and typically located in the steep upper reaches of watersheds
braided channels numerous small interlocking channels that typically form when a stream with a high sediment load encounters a sudden reduction in velocity
meandering channels typically form in lower reaches where streams are flowing over a relatively flat terrain within a broad floodplain.U-shaped and actively migrate over extensive floodplain
thalweg deepest part of a stream channel that has the highest velocity
riffle the shallowest portion of a stream channel that has the lowest velocity
competence describes the ability of a stream to move particles of a certain size
capacity refers to the total possible sediment load a stream can transport
streamflow can be: LAMINAR: all water molecules travel similar parallel pathsorTURBULENT: individual particles take irregular paths
streams erode through: hydraulic action (pressure, shearing)orabrasion (rock particles grinding)
nickpoint -an abrupt change in stream gradient (waterfall, rapids)-caused by resistant rock layers, techtonic uplift, or temporary blockages (landslides)
point bars exposed sediments deposited along inner meander bends where stream velocity is low
natural levees riverbanks that form as a result of flood related deposition
alluvial fans are produced when a steep sediment-laden mountain stream enters a flat velley
floodplain the flat, low-lying area along a stream channel
alluvial terraces are created when a stream begins down cutting into its floodplain
paired alluvial terraces produced by a SUDDEN change in base level followed by downward erosion and valley widening
unpaired alluvial terraces produced by a GRADUAL change in base level that is accompanied by downward erosion and valley widening
river delta form at the mouth of a river where it reaches a local or ultimate base level
ocean bodies of salt water that surround large land masses
sea smaller division of ocean that is enclosed by land
gulf large arm of ocean enclosed by land between two headlands
bay large marine body that forms wide indention in a land mass
cove small marine indention in a land mass between two headlands
ocean chemistry the result of a complex interaction between seawater, the atmosphere, minerals, bottom sediments and living organisms
tides the daily oscillations in sea level ranging from carely noticeable to several meters
tidal bulges are produced by the gravitational pull of the sun and moon on the earth
spring tide sun and the moon are in line with the earth and that produces large tidal bulge
neap tide the sun and moon are perpendicular with the earth and produced smaller tidal wave
tidal range difference between consecutive high and low tides
waves -generated by the force of wind applied to the ocean's surface.-regular patterns of smooth rounded waves on the open ocean are SWELLS.TROUGH is the lowest section, CREST is highest.
wavelength distance between crest of two consecutive waves
waveheight distance between the trough and crest of a single wave
longshore drift process which longshore currents only develop in the surf zone and can transport large amounts of sediments
primary coasts dominated by terrestrial processes including sediment deposition, glacation, and earth movement.Atlantic and gulf coasts of N. america
secondary coasts dominated by marine processes including waves, currents, and tide.pacific coast of N. america
emergence coasts experience falling relative sea levels as a result of techtonic forces and former submarine landforms become exposed
submergence coasts experience rising relative sea levels and include:-ria coast-fjord coast
depositional coasts generally located in techtonically stable areas of gentle relief that have numerous sources of sediment.1. barrier spit2. tombolo3. beaches
barrier chains long, narrow features (usually composed of sand) that form parallel to the coastline.very unstable and adapt to changes in wave energy
mangroves -all species of tropical trees and shrubs-dominate 75% of tropical equatorial coastlines between 30N 30S latitude-hold, trap, and stabilize sediments to pour oxygen and nutrients into the root system
fringing reef stage active volcanism creates islands and corals inititally forming fringing reefs
barrier reef stage volcanism ceases and the islands gradually erode until reaching sea level, coral continues to develop as a barrier reef with lagoon
atoll stage erosion slows after islands drop below sea level but coral can continue to build
Hazard #1: beach erosion -natural coastal sediment transport processes can affect human activities-engineering processes:JETTIES: block materials from harbor entrances, GROINS: slow longshore drift along coast, BREAKWATERS: reduce wave energy on beaches
Hazard #2: rising sea level -mean sea level is affected by oceancurrents, windpatterns, waterdensity, and watertemp. longterm changes have 2 causes: changes in amount of water in ocean & tectonic upliftorsinking of landmasses. global warming melted glaciers;caused ocean water expand
Hazard #3: coastal hurricane and storm surge -hurricanes start storm surges, flood whole cities.-80% of New Orleans was flooded with water up the 20ft deep in Katrina.
Hazard #4: Tsunami caused by seafloor movements associated w/ earthquakes, landslides or volcanic eruptions. produce large waves that travel at great speeds. produced by movement of techtonic plates along subduction zone boundaries. wave height increases in shallow water.
alpine desert -lies above tree ling on mauna kea & mauna loa.-harsh environment, annual rainfall below 20 inches, frequent strong winds, and nighttime frosts.-natural vegetation dominated by dwarf native shrub communities
tropical savanna -australia, south america, africa.-often seasonal rainfall-open grasslands with scattered trees-supports amazing diversity of grazing animals-fires common.
Created by: 68125111