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Psych 381

Abnormal psych midterm study guide

Psychopathology the scientific study of psychological disorders
psychological disorder psychological dysfunction associated with distress or impairment in function that is not typical or culturally expected
Etiology the study of the causes of diseases, the cause or origin of a disease
Etiology:presenting a problem the behaviors thoughts, and feelings of the person
Etiology:aims to distinguish clincally signficant dysfunction from common human experience
Prevalence how many current people in the population
Incidence how many new cases
Acute vs insidious immediate or gradual
supernatural tradition "Good vs. Evil" Caused by demonic possession, witchcraft, sorcery. Treatments = exorcism, torture, beatings and crude surgeries. Moon and stars control the world's outcomes (early astrology)
Biological tradition "Hippocrates" thought abnormal behavior was a physical disease. Galen extended his work. Galen-hippocratic = linked abnormality with brain chemical imbalances, foreshadowed modern views.
Psychological tradition Psychoanalytic theory- fruedian. Structure of mind = id (pleasure: illogical, emotional, irrational), Ego (reality:logical and rational), super ego (moral: keeps id and ego in balance)
defense mechanisms of psychoanalytic theory ego loses battle with id and super ego: displacement and denial, rationalization and reaction formation, projection repression and sublimation
psychosexual stages of development of psychoanalytic theory Oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital stages
The Present: An Integrative Approach Psychopathology is multiply determined, 1-D accounts are incomplete. Must consider reciprocal(mutual) relationships between: bio, psycho, social, and experiential factors.
The Present: An Integrative Approach continued Defining abnormal behavior - complex, multifaceted, and has evolved. The supernatural tradition HAS NO PLACE IN THE SCIENCE of abnormal behavior.
One-dimensional model Explains behavior in terms of a single cause, could mean a paradigm, school or conceptual approach. Tendency to ignore info from other areas
Multi-dimensional model draws upon information from several sources. Interdisciplinary, eclectic, and integrative. "System" of influences that cause and maintain suffering. Abnormal behavior results from multiple influences
Major influences of Multi-dimensional model Biological: inherited overreaction reflex, HR and BP increase, body over compensates, light-headed and queasy. Behavioral: conditioned response to situations - even words produce same reaction. Emotional: fear and anxiety. Social & cultural, developmental
Phenotype observable constitution of an organism
Genotype the genetic makeup of an organism or group of organisms with reference to a single trait, set of traits, or an entire complex of traits.
Diasthesis-Stress model both inheritance and a stressor are required. The greater the underlying vulnerablility, the less stress is needed to trigger a disorder.
Reciprocal Gene-Environment model genetic tendency to CREATE environmental risk factors
Soma cell body
dendrites branches that receive messages (electronic stimulations) from other neurons
axon trunk of neuron that sends messages to other neurons
axon terminals buds at the end of an axon from which chemical messages are sent
Neurotransmitters chemical messengers
main types of neurotransmitters serotonin (5-HT), GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid), norepinephrine, dopamine
assessing psychological disorders Symbol: The funnel - multidimensional in approach and narrow to specific problem areas
purposes of clinical assessment to UNDERSTAND the individual, PREDICT their behavior, plan TREATment, and EVALUATE treatment outcomes.
Reliability degree to which a measurement is CONSISTENT - that may be relied on: dependable in achievement, accuracy, honesty, etc.
Validity Degree to which the technique MEASURES what it is DESIGNED TO MEASURE: the state or quality of being valid, legal soundness or force.
Clinical interview: domains of assessment most common clinical assessment method, structure or semi-structured. BUILD RAPPORT** basis of all therapy if you don't have a connection with your client, it won't work.
Rapport relation, connection, especially harmonious or sympathetic relation
Created by: griffol