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Psych. FINAL

Chapters 7, 8, 10 & 11

QuestionAnswer
Emotion A psychological state with 4 components.
Component (emotion) a positive/negative subjective (own personal perspective) experience.
Component (emotion) the activation of specific mental processes and stored information (basically, involves thinking & memory).
Component (emotion) bodily arousal (psychological response to a situation) NOT SEX! (Ex: when you're angry, your heart beats faster, etc.)
Component (emotion) characteristic; overt (you can see it) behavior.
6 Basic Emotions SURPRISE; HAPPINESS; ANGER; FEAR; DISGUST; SADNESS.
James-Lange Theory William James & Carl Lange; You feel emotions your body reacts.
James-Lange Theory Example If a soldier raised his gun @ the moment he saw you coming, James would say that you would first run & then feel afraid, not the other way around.
Cannon-Bard Theory Walter Cannon; The event causes BOTH arousal & emotion.
Cannon-Bard Theory Example You perceive the threat of being shot, & the results of that perception marshal the body's resources for fleeing or fighting @ the SAME TIME as they generate an emotion.
James Lange Theory Example You see a bear -- Nervous System Activates -- You interpret the situation -- you're scared.
Cannon-Bard Theory Example Event -- causes physiological arousal & emotion @ the same time.
Cognitive Theory Your arousal & the context combine to form/determine emotion(s). An emotion arises when you interpret the situation.
Cognitive Theory Example The act of running and the accompanying arousal can equally be associated w/ the emotion of joy (as you rush to embrace someone you love), fear (as you flee a pursuing soldier), etc.
Facial Feedback Hypothesis We experience emotions in part as a result of the position of our facial muscles. (Ex: smiling makes you feel better/frowning makes you feel sadder).
Misattribution of Arousal The failure to interpret signs of bodily arousal correctly, which leads to the experience of emotions that ordinarily would not arise in the particular situation.
Fear can be an emotional reflex; can be clasically conditioned; interacts with mental processes.
Fear-potentiated startle if you are already scared, you're more likely to be startled. (Ex: if you're already nervous/scared, it does not take much to startle you).
Schacter-Singer Experiment Participants are told they are receiving a vitamin supplement, but they are actually receiving EPINEPHRINE (increases arousal). So, emotional response depended on context.
Confederate pretends to be a participant but really works for the study.
Positive Emotions: Happiness While fear narrows the scope of attention, happiness broadens it.
Body Language Cultural Display Rules; Body Language: Non-Verbal Communication ... Role in conveying sexual interest.
Emotion Regulation Voluntary control over our emotional expressions expressions. We have control over how our brain responds emotionally.
Perceiving Emotions Reading minimal cues; body language. We often imitate emotion, act of imitation provides feedback that allows us to perceive the emotion better.
Motivation The requirements & desires that lead animals (including humans) to behave in a particular way at a particular time and place.
Instincts An inherited tendency to produce organized and unalterable responses to particular stimuli.
Drive Theory In response to internal imbalances, drives push you to REDUCE the imbalance.
Homeostasis The process of maintaining a steady state, in which bodily characteristics & substances are withing a certain range.
Instincts--Weakness human behaviors are more complex and flexible than instincts can explain.
Homeostasis--Weakness Assumes the goal is homeostasis, but sometimes people seek increased/decreased arousal.
Arousal Theory We seek intermediate levels of stimulation; when under stimulated, we seek arousal; when over stimulated, we seek less stimulation.
Arousal Theory--Weakness difficult to define levels of stimulation and how they vary.
Yerkes-Dodson Law We perform best when we are at an intermediate level of arousal.
Incentives We are motivated toward particular goals in anticipation of a reward (Happy Expectation).
Learned Helplessness Condition that occurs after an animal has an aversive experience in which nothing it does affects what happens to it, so it simply gives up and stops trying to change the situation or escape.
Need vs. Want Need: A condition that arises from the lack of a requirement. -- Want: A condition that arises when you have an unmet goal that will not fill a requirement (leads to incentives).
Deprived Reward reward that occurs when a biological need is met.
Non-Deprived Reward reward that occurs NOT when a need is being met, but rather when a want is being satisfied.
Maslow's Hierarchy (of needs) PHYSIOLOGICAL; SAFETY; BELONGINGNESS; ESTEEM; COGNITIVE; AESTHETIC; SELF-ACTUALIZATION.
Maslow's Hierarchy: PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS Water, food, air.
Maslow's Hierarchy: SAFETY NEEDS Shelter, protection.
Maslow's Hierarchy: ESTEEM NEEDS Mastery of feelings appreciated by others.
Maslow's Hierarchy: COGNITIVE NEEDS Understand the world creating curiosity.
Maslow's Hierarchy: AESTHETIC NEEDS Harmony and order.
Maslow's Hierarchy: SELF-ACTUALIZATION NEEDS Be all that you are capable of becoming.
Individualist Culture A culture that emphasizes the rights and responsibilities of the INDIVIDUAL over those of the GROUP.
Collectivist Culture A culture that emphasizes the rights and responsibilities of the GROUP over those of the INDIVIDUAL.
Personality A set of behavioral, emotional, and cognitive tendencies that people display over time and across situations and that distinguish individuals from each other.
Psychological Determinism The view that all behavior, no matter how mundane or insignificant, has an underlying psychological cause.
Freud 3 Personality Components: ID, SUPEREGO, EGO.
ID works according to the pressure principle (Feels good? Then do it!) ... What I WANT to do!
SUPEREGO extra conscious (comes from stuff outside of you=influences) ... What you OUGHT to do!
EGO Self! (conscious; reality principle) ... What you're GONNA do!
Psychoanalysis Founded by FREUD .. Hypnosis; Free Association
Psychosexual Stages ORAL; ANAL; PHALLIC; LATENCY; GENITAL.
Stage 1: ORAL STAGE (Ages: 0-1) Mouth (sucking & biting); Successful weaning from mother's breast or bottle.
Stage 2: ANAL STAGE (Ages: 1-3) Anus (retaining an expelling feces); Successful toilet training.
Stage 3: PHALLIC STAGE (Ages: 3-6) Clitoris or Penis; Successful identification with same-sex parent (private parts).
Stage 4: LATENCY PERIOD (Ages: 6 to puberty) No particular locus of pleasure; sexual impulses are repressed. Successful transformation of repressed sexual urges into socially acceptable activities. Libido takes a "nap" (latent hidden).
Stage 5: GENITAL STAGE (Ages: Puberty Onward) Vagina or Penis; 1: Successful formation of mature sexual love relationship. 2:Successful development of interests and talents related to productive work. (indulge ID).
Neurosis An abnormal behavior pattern relating to a conflict between the EGO and either the ID or the SUPEREGO.
Libido sexual desire/energy present @ birth.
The Oedipal Complex Kid wants to have sex w/ mother ... but dad is in the way! Fear of being castrated by his dad.
The Electra Complex Girl is attracted to her father b/c of what he has (penis). Penis envy.
Castration Anxiety A boy's anxiety-laden fear that, as punishment of loving his mother & hating his father, his father will cut off his pens (the primary zone of pleasure).
Defense Mechanism An unconscious psychological means by which a person tries to prevent unacceptable thoughts or urges from reaching conscious awareness.
Repression Anxiety-provoking thoughts, impulses, and memories are prevented from entering consciousness. (Ex: after failing an exam, you keep forgetting to tell your parents about it).
Maslow Abraham Maslow; the need for self-actualization is @ the highest-level; this need leads people to strive to develop their full potential.
Self-Actualization an innate motivation to attain the highest possible-emotional and intellectual potential.
Rogers he believed that self-concept (our sense of ourselves & how others see us) is central in personality development. Proposed that our feelings about ourselves are in part a reflection of how others see us.
Unconditioned Positive Regard Acceptance without any conditions.
Personality Trait A relatively consistent characteristic exhibited in different situations.
Big Five Hans Eysenck -- EXTRAVERSION/EXTROVERSION; NEUROTICISM; AGREEABLENESS.
Big Five: EXTRAVERSION/EXTROVERSION Sociability (assertive, talkative, happy, positive/optimistic).
Big Five: NEUROTICISM Emotionality (anxious, depressed, impulsive, vulnerable, self-conscious).
Big Five: AGREEABLENESS Altruistic (easy-going, trustworthy, compliant, tenderhearted, trusting).
Big Five: CONSCIENTIOUSNESS Dependability (reliable, dependable, competent, dutiful, achievement).
Big Five: OPENNESS (open-minded, creative, comes up with ideas).
Personality Inventory (scientific) A pencil-and-paper method for assessing personality that requires the test-takers to read statements and indicate whether each is true or false about themselves. (Ex: questionnaires, dating sites).
Social Desirability Bias occurs when people try to make themselves "look good" even if it means giving untrue answers.
MMPI-2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2) A personality inventory primarily used to assess psychopathology.
Projective Test Method used to assess personality and psychopathology that involves asking the test-taker to make sense of an ambiguous stimulus.
Rorschach Test A projective test consisting of a set of INKBLOTS that people are asked to interpret.
TAT (Thematic Apperception Test) A projective test consisting of detailed black-and-white drawings, various elements of which people are asked to explain. You tell the STORY of what is going on).
Temperament Innate inclinations to engage in a certain style of behavior.
Sociability (outgoing) A temperament dimension characterized by a preference for being in other people's company rather than alone. Like to be with people, not alone!
Emotionality Characterized by an inclination to become arouse in situations in which the predominant emotion is DISTRESS, FEAR, or ANGER.
Activity Characterized by the general expenditure of energy, which has 2 components: VIGOR (intensity of the activity) and TEMPO (speed of the activity). General expenditure of energy.
Impulsivity Characterized by the prosperity to respond to stimuli immediately, without reflection or concern for consequences. (respond to stimuli w/out thinking about the consequences).
Health Psychology (wellness) field concerned w/ the promotion of HEALTH & the PREVENTION & TREATMENT of illness as it relates to psychological factors.
Stress general term describing the PSYCHOLOGICAL & BODILY responses to a stimulus that alters the body's state of equilibrium.
Acute Stressors One time thing (dog barking, finals).
Chronic Stressors long-lasting (neighbor, school in general, money).
Stressor The thing that causes stress.
Stress Response fight-or-flight. Bodily changes that occur to help you cope w/ a stressor.
General Adaptation System (GAS) 3 Phases: ALARM, RESISTANCE, EXHAUSTION.
GAS: Alarm Phase Fight-or-Flight response; body mobilizes itself to fight or to flee from a threatening stimulus, which can be a physical threat, such as a knife at the throat, or a psychological one, such as working against a deadline.
Gluccocorticoids Stress hormones released when you are alarmed.
GAS: Resistance Phase (adaptation phase) body mobilizes its resources to achieve equilibrium despite the continued presence of the stressor. It ADAPTS to the stressor.
GAS: Exhaustion Phase With a continued stressor, the body becomes exhausted b/c its limited resources for dealing with stress are depleted.
Allostatic Load cumulative effect; LOAD is too much! Studied in soldiers (veterans).
Sources of Stress INTERNAL, APPROACH-APPROACH, AVOIDANCE-AVOIDANCE, APPROACH-AVOIDANCE.
Sources of Stress: INTERNAL CONFLICT Having a debate w/ yourself. Conflict: competing goals/alternatives..when you have to make hard choices.
Sources of Stress: APPROACH-APPROACH CONFLICT Competing goals are equally positive. Ex: What kind of ice-cream you want; Which classes am I going to take?
Sources of Stress: AVOIDANCE-AVOIDANCE CONFLICT Competing goals that suck! Ex: which punishment do you want?
Sources of Stress: APPROACH-AVOIDANCE CONFLICT Choices have both POSITIVE & NEGATIVE approaches. Ex: you're offered a great job, but it's in Oklahoma, and your family is in Texas.
Life's Hassles Regular everyday things..(Ex: traffic, money, final exams). (Ex: interruptions--traffic).
Hostility A personality trait characterized by mistrust, an expectation of harm & provocation by others, and a cynical attitude (everyone is out to get them...out to upset them, etc.) ... Associated w/ heart disease. Women tend to be more hostile than men.
White Blood Cells 2 Classes ... makes up the Immune System.
B Cells Mature in the bone marrow.
T Cells Mature in the thymus (organ located in the chest).
Natural Killer Cells (NK) Detects and destroys damaged or altered cells, such as precancerous cells before they become tumors. Seek stuff in the body that does not belong there and kills it!
Psychoneuroimmunology study of how your immune system is affected by emotional & physical stress. Stress does NOT cause cancer but it may worsen it. Stress causes blood flow to increase.
Coping Taking some course of action regarding the stressors, its effects, or the person's reaction to it.
Atherosclerosis buildup of plaque (fatty deposits) on the inside walls of the arteries. As plaque accumulates, the arteries narrow, which makes the heart work even harder to meet the body's needs.
Sleep The naturally recurrent experience during which normal consciousness is suspended.
Hypnogogic Sleep Initial stage of sleep, which lasts about 5 minutes and can include the sensation of gentle falling/floating or a sudden jerking of the body.
REM Sleep Stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements and marked brain activity.
REM Rebound Higher percentage of REM sleep that occurs following a night lacking the normal amount of REM, or sleep.
Problem Focused Coping Coping focused on changing the environment itself or the way the person interacts with the environment.
Emotion Focused Coping Coping focused on changing the person's emotional response to the stressor.
Sleeping Stages HYPNOGOGIC, EEG, SWS, REM.
Sleeping Stage: Hypnogogic (1) You don't feel like you're sleeping.
Sleeping Stage: Sleep Spindles (2) Completely asleep.
Sleeping Stage: Delta Waves (3 & 4) Stage 3: you're heart rate & body temperature go down. -- Stage 4: when you wake up & you feel disoriented it means that you were deeply asleep.
Problem-Focused Strategies: ACTIVE COPING Actively tries to remove or work around stressors, or to ameliorate its effects.
Problem-Focused Strategies: PLANNING Thinks about how to manage stressors.
Problem-Focused Strategies: INSTRUMENTAL SOCIAL SUPPORT Seeks concrete advice, assistance, information.
Problem-Focused Strategies: SUPPRESSION OF COMPETING ACTIVITIES Puts other activities on hold in order to concentrate on and cope with stressors.
Problem-Focused Strategies: RESTRAINT COPING Waits to act until the appropriate time.
Emotion-Focused Strategies: EMOTIONAL SOCIAL SUPPORT Seeks encouragement, moral support, sympathy, and understanding from others.
Emotion-Focused Strategies: VENTING EMOTIONS Focuses on and talks about distressing feelings.
Emotion-Focused Strategies: POSITIVE REINTERPRETATION/GROWTH Reinterprets the stressor or situation in a positive way or as a challenge.
Emotion-Focused Strategies: BEHAVIORAL DISENGAGEMENT Reduces efforts to deal with the stressor (as occurs with learned helplessness).
Emotion-Focused Strategies: MENTAL DISENGAGEMENT Turns to other activities to distract attention from the stressor.
Thought Suppression The coping strategy that involves purposefully trying not to think about something emotionally arousing or distressing.
Aggression Behavior that is intended to harm another living being who does not wish to be harmed.
Hostile Attribution Bias The propensity to misread the intentions of others as negative.
Substance Abuse Drug or alcohol use that causes distress or trouble with functioning in major areas of life, occurs in dangerous situations, or leads to legal difficulties.
Substance Dependence Chronic substance abuse that is characterized by seven symptoms, the 2 most important being tolerance and withdrawal.
Withdrawal Symptoms The onset of uncomfortable or life-threatening effects when the use of a substance is stopped.
Depressants (aka: Sedative-Hypnotic Drugs) A class of substances, including barbiturates, alcohol, and anti-anxiety drugs, that depress the central nervous system, decreasing the user's behavioral activity and level of awareness. (Ex: alcohol)
Tolerance Condition of requiring more of a substance to achieve the same effect (because the usual amts. provides a diminished response).
Disinhibition The inhibition of inhibitory neurons, which makes other neurons (the ones that are usually inhibited) more likely to fire and which usually occurs as a result of depressants use.
Inhibitory Conflict An internal response when a behavior is both strongly instigated and inhibited.
Alcohol Myopia The disproportionate influence of immediate experience on behavior and emotion due to the effects of alcohol use.
Blackout A period of time for which an alcoholic has no memory of events that transpired while he or she was intoxicated.
Stimulants A class of substances that excite the Central Nervous System (CNS), leading to increases in behavioral activity and heightened arousal. (Ex: cocaine, amphetamines).
Psychological Disorders The presence of a constellation of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral symptoms that create significant distress (impair work, school, family, relationships, or daily living; or lead to significant risk/harm).
Psychosis An obvious impairment in the ability to perceive and comprehend events accurately, combined w/ a gross disorganization of behavior.
Hallucinations Sensory images so vivid that they seem real.
Delusions Entrenched false beliefs that are often bizarre.
Hallucinations (example) Hearing voices.
Delusions (example) Their thoughts are being controlled by aliens.
DSM-IV Fourth Edition of mental disorders manual, designed primarily to help clinicians diagnose/treat patients. It created a psychological/psychiatric disorder for a medical problem.
Mood Disorders A category of disorders marked by persistent/episodic disturbances in emotion that interfere w/ normal functioning in @ least one realm of life.
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) A mood disorder characterized by @ least 2 weeks of depressed mood/loss of interest in nearly all activities, along w/ sleep or eating disturbances, loss of energy, and feelings of hopelessness.
Bipolar Disorder A mood disorder marked by one or more episodes of either mania/hypomania, often alternating w/ period of depression.
Manic Episode A period of @ least 1 week during which an abnormally elevated, expansive, or irritable mood persists.
Attributional Style A person's characteristic way of explaining life events.
Anxiety Disorder A category of disorders whose whose hallmark is intense or pervasive anxiety or fear, or extreme attempts to avoid these feelings.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder Hallmark is excessive anxiety and worry that is not consistently related to a specific object or situation.
Panic Attacks Episodes of intense fear/discomfort accompanied by physical/psychological symptoms such as palpitations, breathing difficulties, chest pain, fear of impending doom or of doing something uncontrollable, and a sense of unreality.
Panic Disorder An anxiety disorder whose hallmark is panic attacks or fear and avoidance of such attacks.
Agoraphobia A condition in which people fear/void places that might be difficult to leave should panic symptoms occur.
Phobia A fear and avoidance of an object or situation extreme enough to interfere with everyday life.
Social Phobia A type of phobia involving fear of public humiliation or embarrassment and the ensuing avoidance of situations likely to arouse this fear.
Specific Phobia A type of phobia involving persistent and excessive or unreasonable fear triggered by a specific object/situation, along w/ attempts to avoid the feared stimulus.
OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder) An anxiety disorder marked by the presence of obsessions, and sometimes compulsions.
Obsession A recurrent and persistent thought, impulse, or image that feels intrusive and inappropriate and is difficult to suppress or ignore.
Compulsion A repetitive behavior or mental act that an individual feels compelled to perform in response to an obsession.
PTSD (Posttraumatic Stress Disorder) An anxiety disorder experienced by some people after a traumatic event and whose symptoms include persistent re-experiencing of the trauma, avoidance of anything associated w/ the trauma, and heightened arousal.
Schizophrenia A psychotic disorder in which the patient's affect, behavior, and thoughts are profoundly altered.
Positive Symptoms An excess or distortion of normal functions, such as a hallucination.
Negative Symptoms A diminution or loss of normal functions, such as a restriction in speech.
High Expressed Emotion An emotional style in families that are critical, hostile, and overinvolved.
Social Selection The tendency of the mentally disabled to drift to the lower economic classes; also called social drift.
Social Causation The chronic psychological and social stresses of living in an urban environment that may lead to an increase in the rate of schizophrenia (especially among the poor).
Personality Disorder A category of disorders in which relatively stable personality traits are inflexible and maladaptive, causing distress or difficulty w/ daily functioning.
ASPD (Antisocial Personality Disorder) A personality disorder characterized by a long-standing pattern of disregard for other people to the point of violating their rights.
ASPD (symptoms) Egocentrism; impulsive; reckless; deceitful behavior w/out regard for others' safety.
DSM-IV Organized personality disorders into three clusters, with each grouping based on common symptoms.
Schizophrenia Subtype: PARANOID Delusions of persecution are prominent; intellectual functioning & affect are relatively intact, but auditory hallucinations are common. This type has the best prognosis.
Schizophrenia Subtype: DISORGANIZED Disorganized speech & behavior & flat or inappropriate affect are prominent. This type has the worst prognosis.
Schizophrenia Subtype: CATATONIC Catatonic (bizarre, immobile, or relentless) motor behaviors are prominent.
Schizophrenia Subtype: UNDIFFERENTIATED Symptoms do not clearly fall into any of the above three subtypes.
Created by: kserrano005