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Sherer 7-10

Radiation protection

QuestionAnswer
Responsibilities of radiation protection organizations: Evaluate relationship between EqD and biologic effects and formulate risk estimates of somatic and genetic effects
Responsibilities of Radiation Safety Officer Develop appropriate radiation safety program
RSO is usually: a medical physicist
Effective Dose Limit level of radiation effective dose that has been recommended as an upper boundary dose of ionizing radiation that results in a negligible risk of bodily injury or damage.
Effective Dose limits may be expressed for whole body exposure, partial body exposure, and exposure of individual organs
Effective dose limits are designed to minimize the risk to humans in terms of non stochastic and stochastic effects.
Effective dose limits do not include natural background and medical exposure.
Radiation Control for health and safety act of 1968 was enacted by: congress to protect the public from unnecessary radiation. (microwave, television, x-ray)
Code of standards for diagnostic x-ray equipment - 1974 additional standard requirements such as PBL, minimum filtration, linearity, reproducibility, beam on indicator, and back-up timer
Consumer-Patient Radiation Health and Safety Act of 1981 provides federal legislation requiring the establishment of minimal standards for accreditation of education programs for persons who administer radiologic procedures.
The current radiation protection philosophy is based on the assumption that a linear, non-threshold relationship exists between radiation dose and biologic response.
Occupational risk should not exceed risk of "safe industries"; 2.5% chance of fatal accident over entire career.
Annual occupational effective dose limit 5 rem of whole body, not including medical and background radiation
Cumulative effective dose (CumEfD) limit 1 rem times age
Collective effective dose (ColEfD): population, or group exposure to low doses of different sources of ionizing radiation
Limit for pregnant female radiation workers: 05 rem (50 mrem) per month, or .5 rem (500mrem) for entire pregnancy
Limit for education and training purposes of individuals under 18 years of age: .1 rem/year (100mrem)
Negligible individual dose: 1 mrem/year; an annual effective dose that provides a low-exposure cut-off level so that regulatory agencies may dismiss a level of individual risk as negligible
Action Limits: limits to occupational exposure that are set by the medical facility well below the regulatory values as they appear in state or federal regulations
Dose limit for eye: 15rem/year
Dose limit for skin and extremities: 50rem/year
Dose for temporary sterility: 200rem
Dose for permanent sterility: 500-600rem
Depressed sperm count or menstrual irregularity can happen as low as: 10rem
First step in patient radiation protection: Effective communication
X-ray beam limitation devices are used to: confine the useful beam and reduce unnecessary exposure and scatter radiation
Types of beam limitation devices: aperture diaphragm, cones, collimators (PBL)
Patient skin should be at least ___ cm below collimator 15
The x-ray field must coincide with the light field of the variable-aperture light-localizing collimator, and must be within ___ of SID 2%
The purpose of beam filtration is to reduce exposure to: patient's skin and superficial tissues
Filtration elements absorb most of the ____ energy photons from the heterogeneous beam, thereby ______ it's mean energy and ______ patient dose. low; increasing; reducing
Two types of filtration: inherent (.5 mm Al equivalent) and added (2.0 mm Al equivalent)
Created by: MalloryKnox