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Population Chapter 20

demographers are social scientific analysts of human population
Malthusian trap refers to a cycle of population growth followed by an outbreak of war, pestilence or famine that keeps population growth in check
demographic transition theory explains how changes in fertility and mortality affected population growth from preindustrial to postindustrial times
crude death rate is the annual number of deaths per 1000 people in a population
the crude birth rate is the annual number of live births per 1000 women in a population
replacement level is the number of children that each women must have on average for population size to remain stable, ignoring migration. The replacement level is 2.1
Immigration or (in-migration) is the inflow of people into one country from one or more other countries and their settlement in the destination country
Emigration or (out-migration) is the outflow of people from one country and their settlement in one or more other countries
sex ratio is the ratio of women to men in geographical area
Chicago school founded urban sociology in the U.S in the first decades of the 20th c.
human ecology is the theoretical approach to urban sociology that borrow ideas from biology and ecology to highlight the links bewtween the physical and social dimensions of cities and identify the dynamics and patterns of urban growth
differentiation in the theory of human ecology refers to the process by which urban populations and their activities become more complex and heterogeneous over time
competition (in the theory of human ecology)refers to the struggle by different groups of optimal locations in which to reside and set up their businesses
ecological succession in the theory of human ecology refers to the process by which a distinct urban group moves from one area to another and a second group comes in to replace the group that has moved out
urbanism is the way of life that, according to Louis Wirth, involves increased tolerance but also emotional withdrawal and specialized, impersonal, and self-interested interaction
new urban sociology emerged in the 1970s and stressed that city growth is a process rooted in power relation and the urge to profit
corporate city refers to the growing post-World War II perception and organization of the North American city as a vehicle for capital accumulation
suburbanism is a way of life outside city centers that is organized mainly around needs of children and involves higher levels of conformity and sociability that life in the central city
census metropolitan area (CMA) includes a large urban area ( know as urban core) along with adjacent urban and rural areas ( urban and rural "fringes" ) that are highly integrated with the urban core
edge cities are clusters of malls, offices, and entertainment complexes that arise at the convergence to point of highways
gentrification is the process of middle-class people moving into rundown areas of the inner city and restoring them
postmodern city is a new urban form that is more privatized, socially and culturally fragmented and globalized that the corporate city
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