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Mod 27


Edward Thorndike enticed cats to escape boxes with fish
Law of Effect behaviors followed by favorable reinforcements will increase
B. F. Skinner Operant Conditioning Chamber:Rats press a lever to receive food/ Rats also press a lever to stop being shocked
Reinforcement anything that increases a behavior
Positive reinforcement adding something desirable to increase a behavior
Negative reinforcement: removing something aversive to increase a behavior
Reinforcers are very individualized
primary meet basic need)
secondary money, praise
Shaping guides behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
Discriminative Stimulus Telling the difference between similar (but not identical) stimuli
Continuous Reinforce a behavior every time it occurs/ Learning occurs rapidly/ Extinction also occurs rapidly
Partial Reinforce a behavior some of the time/ More realistic/ Slower learning, slower extinction
Fixed ratio schedules reinforcement occurs after a set number of responses
Fixed interval schedules reinforcement occurs after a set length of time
Variable ratio schedules reinforcement occurs after an unpredictable number of responses
Variable interval schedules reinforcement occurs after an unpredictable length of time
Fixed ratio schedules example one free coffee after every 10 purchased
Fixed interval schedules example mail arriving at 2pm every day
Variable ratio schedules example payoff on slot machine after a varying number of plays
Variable interval schedules checking our phone for a text from our friend
punishment Opposite of reinforcement
punishment goal decrease a behavior
Positive punishment: add an aversive stimulus
Negative punishment: withdraw a rewarding stimulus
Negative reinforcement: Remove an aversive stimulus to increase behavior
Positive punishment: Add an aversive stimulus to decrease behavior
Punishment can teach fear
Punishment may teach discrimination rather than changed behavior
Physical punishment may increase aggression Observational learning
Created by: Sophia154
Popular Psychology sets




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