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Unit 4

Sensation and perception

QuestionAnswerExamples/extra information
how we detect the physical energy from the environment and encode it as neural signals. Sensation ex. Senses
how we select, organize, and interpret our sensations. Perception ex. Seeing a word and understanding what it means
Taking in raw sensory information from the environment and processing it without relying on prior knowledge or expectations (Externally based) Bottom up processing ex. Going to a friend's house that you have never been before. Not knowing where anything is
Uses higher level cognitive processes such as expectations and prior knowledge to influence the interpretation of incoming stimuli (Internally based) Top down processing ex. Going to a friend's house again and remembering where things are
the minimum stimulation necessary to detect a particular light, sound, pressure, taste, or odor 50 % of the time. Absolute threshold
sight absolute threshold seeing a candle lit from 30 miles away on clear night
hearing absolute threshold hearing a watch ticking from 20 feet away
smell absolute threshold smelling one drop of perfume in a 3 room house
touch absolute threshold Feeling a bee's wing falling one centimeter onto your cheek
taste absolute threshold tasting a teaspoon of sugar dissolved in 2 gallons of water
Depends on signal strength and psychological state. Used when psychologists want to measure the way we make decisions under times of uncertainty like how we perceive distance in foggy conditions. Will the person respond to the presence of a signal or not Signal Detection Theory
sensory stimulation that is below a person's threshold for perception. below threshold of conscious awareness that is presenting info and it can influence you Subliminal Stimulation Going to sleep while listening to information about a topic
minimum difference a person can detect between any two stimuli 50% of the time. Difference Thresholds (Just noticeable difference)
To perceive a difference in two stimuli. A percentage increase/decrease not a specific amount. Weber’s Law Adding/subtracting a chip from from a bag. You won't notice because the percentage of chips added/subtracted was so small. You have to add/subtract multiple chips to notice
our diminishing sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus. This happens so we can focus on more important/new stimuli ex. smells, temperature, touch, sounds Sensory Adaptation In a public bathroom that smells bad. Eventually not noticing the smell anymore
The way our brains take physical stimuli such as sights, smells, and sounds, and turn them into internal experiences like joy, fear, or happiness Transduction The smell of pine trees makes you think Christmas
Distance from one wave peak to the next Wavelength
high frequency (bluish colors, high-pitched sounds) short wavelengths
low frequency (reddish colors, low-pitched sounds) long wavelengths
The color we experience determined by the wavelength. hue
The amount of energy in light waves intensity
great amplitude bright colors, loud sounds
small amplitude dull colors, soft sounds
Where the light enters the eye. Protects the eye from infections & bends light to provide focus. very front of the eye cornea
A small adjustable opening. the opening at the center of the iris through which light passes. pupil
Muscle surrounding the pupil, determines the amount of light let in. The brown, green, blue color iris
Focuses incoming stimulus. Changes its curvature. This is called accommodation. behind the iris that helps to focus light and images on the retina lens
The eyeball’s light sensitive inner surface on which the rays focus is a multi-layered tissue. located on the back of the eye retina
area directly behind the pupil where vision is sharpest. Inside the retina. has cones but not rods fovea
Sharpness of vision acuity
Misshapen eyeball focuses the light rays from distant objects in front of the retina Can see close up but not far away Nearsightedness
Can see far but not close Overusing eye muscles = headaches Farsightedness
located in the retina rods and cones
allow us to see black and white (see less detail) rods
allow us to see color (see more detail) cones
Carries information to the brain Made up of axons from the network of ganglion cells (like rope) optic nerve
Where the optic nerve leaves the eye NO rods here. (this is why you see things in the dark better in your peripheral vision) blind spot
a process by which specialized nerve cells in the brain respond to specific features of a visual stimulus, such as lines, edges, angle, or movement ex. Looking at the hands on a clock, and looking at someone’s face Feature detection
the ability to deal with multiple stimuli simultaneously ex. processing color, depth, movement, form Parallel processing the driver of a car must simultaneously pay attention to traffic, lights, and road signs.
States that the retina has three types of color receptors each sensitive to one of three colors: Red, Green, Blue Young Helmholtz trichromatic theory
States that opposing retinal processes (eye overstimulated by red you see green, same with yellow/blue, same with white/black) enable color vision. Some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red and vice versa. Explains afterimages Opponent Process Theory When the eye is overstimulated you see blotches in the air. This uses the color of what had over stimulated the eyes to change the blotch color you see
Perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color. Color Constancy seeing a green shirt in the light and later in the dark. the color looks like a different shade of green but revognizing it is the same
Length of the amplitude waves (sound) frequency
Frequency determines pitch pitch
what waves give a low pitch (tuba) long waves
what waves give a high pitch ( flute) Short waves
a measuring unit for sound energy Decibels
Something that causes a sensation Stimulus Being pinched
tight membrane that vibrates with waves eardrum
tiny bones that transmit the vibrations to the cochlea. Hammer, Anvil, Stirrup (ossicles)
Snail-shaped tube in the inner ear Cochlea
cochlea’s membrane causes the fluid filled tube to vibrate Oval Window
hair like, send neural messages to temporal lobe Cillia
hear different pitches because different sound waves trigger activity at different places along the cochlea’s membrane Helmholtz place theory the basilar membrane of the ear has different regions or areas which are stimulated depending on the frequency of the sound it receives.
brain can read pitch from the frequency of neural impulses. frequency Theory The rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone; enabling us to sense its pitch
sound conduction is impeded through either the external ear, the middle ear, or both. happens when sounds cannot get through the outer and middle ear. Conduction Deafness Muffled hearing. A gradual or sudden loss of hearing.
there is a problem within the cochlea or the neural pathway to the auditory cortex. Nerve deafness/ Sensorineural hearing loss results from damage to the hair cells within the inner ear, the vestibulocochlear nerve, or the brain's central processing centers.
Nerve endings sense- pressure, warmth, cold, and pain. Receptors rods and cones (vision), Meissner's corpuscles (touch), olfactory cells (smell), hair cells (hearing), and gustatory cells (taste).
create competition between different stimuli. rubbing around an are in pain Gate control theory Rubbing a spot around an injury well have competing stimuli also rush to the brain along with the pain, causing pain stimuli to be slower(less pain)
one sense may influence another (taste & smell) Sensory interaction when taste, smell, and touch together produce the flavor of food.
the awareness of the body's position in space, and of the movements of its various limbs. Kinesthesis knowing where you are and limbs are so you don't walk into a wall
monitors the head’s position and movement in relation to the body. Vestibular sense When you twirl around in circles many times and stop, the time you are trying to regain your balance is when you're using your vestibular senses.
At any moment our awareness focuses on only one stimulus, narrowing our attention to just that one stimulus. Selective attention When watching TV and someone is trying to talk to you. Not being able to hear them because you are too busy watching TV
our ability to pay attention to only one voice out of many Cocktail party effect Being able to focus on your friend talking when in a crowd
Changing small details in someones vision or in a picture, and then not noticing Change Blindness Maybe objects are fading in or out and you don't notice it happen because the change was so subtle
an optical illusion where two lines of the same length appear to be of different lengths Mueller Lyre
Where on one side of a room you look huge but if you stand on the other you look tiny Magic Room (Ames Room)
refers to our tendency to allow visual images to dominate our perception. Visual Capture watching a movie we tend to think that the voices come from the moving images on the screen instead of speakers. When watching a ventriloquist act, it seems as if the voice is coming from the dummy rather than from the ventriloquist
Figures have more than one perception. Pictures that look like two or more completely different things depending on how you look at the picture/which part you focus on Reversible Figures
The context helps determine your perceptual set, because it influences what you expect to see. The surrounding environment or situation can create expectations that influence perception. Context Effect/Perceptual Set When in a desert we don't expect to see water. When under water in the ocean we expect to see fish underwater, not elephants
What is the difference between Nerve deafness/ Sensorineural hearing loss and conduction deafness conduction deafness results from the inability of sound waves to reach the inner ear and Nerve deafness/ Sensorineural hearing loss is from damage to the hair cells within the inner ear, Soft sounds may be hard to hear. Even louder sounds may be unclear or may sound muffled.
What is the difference between Kinesthesis and Vestibular sense The vestibular sense is the sense of head position, body movement, position, and balance. Kinesthetic senses include sensing the position and movement of individual body parts.
a binocular(both eyes) cue used to perceive depth between two near objects Retinal Disparity comparing the different images from both retinas. Each eye receives different images because they are usually around two and half inches apart.
the closer the object, the greater the inward strain Convergence Makes you cross eyed
tests an infants depth perception. Consists of a glass covered platform with a drop off on one side visual cliff
Monocular Cues things appearing smaller are perceived to be further away Relative Size
Monocular Cues an object partially blocking our view of another object is perceived as closer Interposition: person in the way of a trashcan. They are perceived as closer than the trashcan
Monocular Cues perceive hazy objects as further away Relative clarity Because light from distant objects passes through more light than closer objects, we perceive hazy objects to be farther away than those objects that appear sharp and clear
Monocular Cues objects far away appear smaller and more densely packed. Texture Gradient
Monocular Cues we perceive higher objects in our field of vision as farther away. Relative Height An object 3 feet above my head will look farther away than if it were 3 feet below my head
Objects look smaller and smaller the farther away they go and larger and larger the closer they come Motion Perception ball being thrown to you, or you throwing the ball away from you
When two adjacent stationary lights blink on & off in quick succession, we perceive a single light moving back and forth between them. Phi Phenomenon moving Christmas lights
slightly varying images in rapid series = perception of movement Stroboscopic Movement animation flip books
when the object appears to have changed but we know it hasn’t Shape & Size Constancy When a door is open, it hits the eye as a trapezoid shape, but we still perceive it as a rectangle
the belief that a person will feel deprived or entitled to something based on the comparison to someone else. Relative Deprivation Being happy about a grade you had gotten on a test then finding out that everyone else did better and hating your grade
Created by: logandubois5
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