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Psychobio EXAM 4

Autonomic nervous system part of the PNS that controls the internal organs of the body (emotional processing- unconscious state)
Sympathetic nervous system responsible for the “fight or flight” responses → increased alertness, metabolic rate, respiration, blood pressure, heart rate, sweating
Affect= emotion Automatic nervous system → emotional processing (unconscious) which influences the Limbic system (emotional processing- conscious)
James Lang Theory of Emotion Suggest that autonomic arousal/ skeletal action occurs first in an emotion
Facial feedback facial expression directly impacts emotional experience/ our emotional states comes from body signals, not the other way around
Autonomic failure fight or flight response fails to kick in
Limbic system consists of a group of forebrain areas surrounding the thalamus involved in our behavioral/ emotional responses (emotional processing- conscious) Communication between frontal lobe/ amygdala influences emotion
Basic emotion cross-cultural affective experiences present at birth that all humans experience (happiness, sadness, fear, anger, disgust, surprise)
Somatic markers are feelings in the body that are associated w/ emotions, such as rapid heartbeat w/ anxiety or of nausea w/ disgust “markers” can be used for us to guide our behavior based off emotional states
Amygdala structure of the limbic system primarily involved in visually detecting fear/ danger, kicks in the the sympathetic nervous system responses responsible for emotional states
Startle reflex defensive reaction to potential threats, such as loud nosies or surprising stimuli, modulated by the amygdala (unlearned fear)
Facial action coding system (FACS) video tape someone based on facial expressions/ determine the emotional state they are in
Bednucleus of the striata terminalis (BNST) limbic system structure that connect to the amygdala that influences people’s attention to possible threats (learned fears)
Kluver-Bucy syndrome arises from damage to the amygdala, monkeys with this syndrome are tame/ placid → additionally have impaired social behaviors
Urbach-Wiethe Disease rare genetic condition that causes calcium to regulate in the amygdala until it wastes away - avoid eye contact - incorrectly appraised emotions
HPA (hypothalamic-pitutiary adrenal) activation associated with stress release CRH/ ACTH from pituitary gland central to anxiety/ mood disorders
Insual disgust
Right Temporopanietal junction (TPJ) involved in the processing of information in terms of the ability of an individual to orient attention to new stimuli
Somatic marker hypothesis translation of emotional experience with our body states
conditioned stimulus (CS) stimulus that can eventually trigger a conditioned response
unconditioned stimulus (US) stimulus that leads to an automatic response
conditioned response (CR) automatic response established by training to a neutral stimulus
Sensory memory immediate events (seconds)
Short-term memory (STM) chunks of info held in in rehearsal (minutes)
Long term memory (LTM) semi-permanent or permanent storage (years)
Akinson-Shiffrin model Incoming info → Sensory → STM (maintenance via rehearsal) → LTM → retrieval to STM
Baddely-Hitch model working memory system also has additional mechanisms to help w/ memory
Phonological loop rooted in auditory info/ dedicated to working memory/ serves to temporarily hold verbal info
Episodic buffer temporary storage system that is able to combine info from the phonological loop EX: remebering what happened at a 21st bday
Visual-spatial sketchpad ability temporarily to hold visual/ spaital info such as location of a parked care
Central executive flexible system responsible for the control/ regulation of cognitive processes/ directs focus and targets info, making WM (working memory) and LTM work together
Explicit (declarative) LT memory memories of facts/ events we can consciously remember and recall/ declare
Implicit LTM (non-declarative/ unconscious) not part of consciousness and formed through behaviors (learning how to ride a bike or fear of spiders)
Hippocampus strcutre embedded in the temporal lobe that plays a role in the movement of info from STM → LTM (consolidation) - encoding predicts later source memory/ a "remember response
Sharp-wave ripples (SWR) are bursts of highly synchronous neural activity in the hippocampus thought to be involved in memory/ retrieval
Retrograde amnesia an inability to recall past events
Anterograde amnesia an inability to form new memories
Place cells are hippocampal neurons that respond when an animal is in a particular location and looking in a particular direction
Time cells hippocampal cells that respond at a particular point in a sequence of time
Grid cells in entorhinal cortex (cortex that surround hippocampus), different cells respond to different locations in 2D space
Striatum of the basal ganglia (caudate + putamen) control the types of learning involved in procedural memories (probabilistic/ sequence learning)
Hebbian hypothesis neurons that fire together wire together
Hebbian synapse when an axon of cell A repeatedly excites cell B, some growth process or metabolic change takes place in one of both cells such as A’s efficiency as one of the cells firing B is incresed
Long term potentiation occurs when synaptic connections are strengthened through frequent activation requires
specificity if some synapses have been active/ others not, omly the active ones become strengthed
cooperativity nearly simultaneous stimulation from two input strengths LTP more than repeated stimulation by a single axon
associativity pairing a weak input w/ a strong input enhances later response to the weak input (when compared to no stimulation at all)
Receptors for glutamate (2) AMPA receptors (cause neuron to fire) NMDA receptors (open up/ make depolarization even stronger) → work w/ each other when it comes to learning
Nodes representations of memories in the brain (a cat is an animal)
Associations are links between nodes that can turned on/ off during memory retrieval (dogs and birds are also animals)
Spreading activation when a part of the memory network is activated, activation spreads along associative pathways to related areas in memory
Remember/ know distinction separate brain regions involved in remembering vs. knowing faces
Rhinal cortex encoding predicts later feelings of familiarity/ a “know” response
Short term memory loss loss of recent events
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) codes for a protein involved in lipid metabolism in the brain
Amyloid insoluble deposits of beta-amyloid peptide/ cellular material outside and around neurons
Neurofibrillary tangles aggregates of the microtubule-associated protein tau which can accumlate inside neurons
Alzheimer's disease disease of neurodegeneration that destroys memory and other mental functions 7th leading cause of death in US
Intelligence our ability to acquire/ apply knowledge/ skills
Parietal-frontal integration theory (P-FIT) a theory that explains how intelligence is represented in the brain
hierarchical brain networks converge info across the frontal/ parietal lobes for processing theory/ advanced cognition (hence, intelligence)
convergent thinking meaning using what you already know to produce a solution to a problem
divergent thinking more accurate representation of intelligence → new solutions to a problem
Wallas model of creative processes (4 stages) preparation, incubation, illumination, vertification - model states we can all be creative/ evolves through these 4 stages
Preparation gathering info/ doing prep work
Incubation not thinking abt the problem
Illumination a new idea or insight emerges
Verification testing… does the new idea actually work
Language is a communication system in which a limited number of signals can be combined upon to produce messages SVO strucutre= subject, verb, object
Basic units of speech Phonemes Morphemes Words Phrases
Phonemes basic units of sound that can change the meaning of a word
Morphemes basic unit of meaning that exist in a word/ change value of word
Words a single distinct element of speech or writing
Phrases a small group of worlds together as a conceptual unit sentences
Semantics what does a certain word mean
Syntax grammatical rules
Piamatics social rules in given language
Piosody inflection/ intonation
Articulators organs above the larynx (togue, lips, teeth, hard palate) designed for vocalization
Broca’s aphasia (production or non-fluent aphasia) cannot produce language (syntax) → frontal lobe
Wernicke’s aphasia (comprehension or fluent-aphasia) cannot understand meaning of language (semantics)
Semantic error "He drinks his coffee w/ cream and dog”= produces N400 → semantic -5.5 on scale
Syntatic error “He prefers to solve problems herself”= produces LAN (left anterior negativity) (-3.1 on scale)
Universal grammar system of common rules/ properties for learning any of the world’s languages
Language acquisition device (chomsky/ pinker) a mental capacity that allows human infants to acquire/ produce language
Attention ability to take notice of someone or something can be selective in the sense that we focus on one input/ tas while ignoring other stimuli
Endogenous/ voluntary attention attention that we intentionally (volitionally) direct, like focusing a spotlight on a visual scene
Spatial attention ability to focus that spotlight to a given region of personal space
Exogenous/ involuntary attention when something that is salient within our surroundings captures our attention
Corbetta & Shulman (2000) prosed two separate neural networks for attentional control - goal-directed (endogenous) - stimulus-driven (exogenous)
Goal-directed (endogenous) Frontal eye fields (FEF) Intraparietal sulci (IPS)
Stimulus-driven (exogenous) Ventral frontal cortex (VFC) Temporoparietal junction (TPJ)
Inattentional blindness people fail to see a prominent stimulus, even if they’re staring right at it
Late selection that all info is analysed relatively completely/ occurs after the analysis is finished
Early selection attended info is privileged from the get-go unattended info receives little analysis/ is never perceived
Consciousness the awareness of our unique cognitive events (thougts, memories, feelings, sensations, environments)
Harks back to the mind/body problem can conscious experience be explained by neuroscientifc phenomena
Qualia individual instances of subjective, conscious experience
Umvelt (von Uexkull) an organism’s model of a (self-centered) world
Blind sight phenomena where disruptions to visual cortex lead to an inability for patients to see (blindness) however they still react to their enviroment (sight?)
Neuronal workspace conscious state, recurrent processing amplifies/ sustains a neuronal representation, allowing the corresponding info to be globally accessed by local processors
psychiatry diagnosis, prevention, study, treatment of mental disorders
Neurology dealing w/ disorders of the nervous system
Mood or affective disorders these are a mental health condition where the main underlying feature is impacted mood
Mood Depressive Disorder (MDD) mental health disorder by depressed mood or loss of interest in activites
Seasonal Affective Disorder impacted mood state because of certain seasons, most often fall or winter
Paranoid personality disorder (PPD) mental condition in which a person has a long-term pattern of distrust/ suspicion of others
Dysthymia (DD) milder, but long-lasting form of depression, could have major depression by fluctuating dysphoria
Cyclothymia rare mood disorder causes emotional ups/ downs but not super extreme, periods when mood noticebly shifts
Monoamine hypothesis of depression postulates that the deficit of certain neurotransmitters (monoamines) are responsible for the corresponding features of depression
Medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) constitutes a system that modulates limbic function/ emotional processing
Congitive behavioral therpay (CBT) designed to restore balance to this system
Schizophrenia mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior/ an inability to tell what is real and not real
Positive symptoms present of something that shouldn’t be there (hallucnations)
Negative symptoms absent of something that should be there (hard time moving/ no tone in voice)
Cognitve symptoms cogntive disability (attention, verbal learning, memory, issues w/ problem solving)
First eposide or psychotic break symptoms usually arise, not really til late teens, having disorganized thoughts
Prodromial stage stop symptoms from emerging is in this stage
Disconnection hypothesis the “disengagment” is related to “disconnection” at the anatomical/ psychological level in the brain (“break”)
Typical antipsychotics (first generation) drugs used in the 1950s to treat the extreme symptoms (delusions, hallucinations) in patients w/ schizophrenia (dopamine shock system)
Atypical antipsychotics (second generation) work on the dopamine system but are less likely to cause motor disabilities (ex: tardive dyskenesia)
Dopamine model postulates “excessive dopamine activity”
GABA postmortem studies have shown reduction in the activation of an enzyme that synthesizes GABA in schizophrenia
Glutamate drugs that work on glutamatergic activity (NMDAR blockers= ketamine, PCP) produce the full rnage of schizophrenia symptoms/ cognitive deficits
Addicition neuropsychological condition that relies on a dependence on a certain behavior, which may or may not involve psychoactive compunds
Complex hertiability increase in first degree relatives, but also in adopted children
Compulsion overwhelming involvement in the behavior
Compulsive seeking preoccupied w/ seeking the addicition
Withdrawal/ Relapse susiptible to fall back into the behavior and struggle associated w/ memory
Medial forebrain bundle/ Ventral tegmental area (VTA) in midbrain found to be particuarly effective sites/ these sites have been termed “pleasure centers”
Nucleus accumbens dopamine rich center in the limbic area
prefrontal cortex short term memory
amygdala moderates emotional infleunces on memory- fear response
MFB medial forebrain bundle
Behavioral addictions compulsive behaviors engaged in to receive a natural reward (ex: sexual addicition/ pathological gambling)
Nalmetene opioid antagonsist
Y-box excessive compulsive scale
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by the presence of maladaptive anixety/ fear
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) worrying constantly/ can’t control the worrying
Phobia persistent, excessive fear of an object, person or situation
Panic disorders/ PTSD developes when person experienced a scary/ shocking event
Social anixety disorder (SAD) fear/ anixety lead to avoidance that can disrupt your life/ fear of being watched/ judged by others
Obessvie-complusive disorder person experiences uncontrollable/ recurring thoughts (obessions)/ engagaes in repetitive behaviors (compulsions)
Situational anxiety happens in response to new/ stressful situations
Anxiety feeling of apprehension caused by anticipation of danger (internal or external)
Fear unpleasurable emotional state consisting of physioloigcal changes in response to a relatisic threat/ danger
Panic intense, sudden feeling of fear accompanied by psycholoigcal responses
Obession persistent preoccupation w/ something or someone
State something that your feeling at a point in time (“I’m feelig anxious”)
Trait who you are as a person (“I’m an anxious person”)
Fear circuit (amygdala) persistently scared of something → centered around the amygdala
Corticostriatal-thalamocoritcal circuit brain circuit that controls movement execution, habit formation and reward
Panic disorder related to acitivty of the locus coeruleus, a structure involved in the production of nonrepinephrine
Anxiolytics drugs that reduce anixety
Dementia global, progressive loss of cognitive ability that ultimately impairs independent function
Vascular dementia progressive worsening of cogntiive fucntions due to vascular changes/ impaired blood flow in the brain - 2nd leading cause of dementia - confusion/ restlessness
Causes of Vascular dementia Stroke Atherosclerosis TIA= transient ischemic attack --> not getting enough blood
Lewy Body dementia (LBD) Caused by alpha-synuclein deposits (Lewy bodies) in the NS - motor/ alterness issues --> depression/ confusion - lewy bodies kill off the brain
Frontal-Temporal Lobar Degeneration Neurodegeneration of the frontal/ temporal lobe specifically - personality changes, loss of socially acceptable emotions
PPA (primary progressive afasia) progress loss of language ability
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Most common CNS autoimmune disorder Cause is unknown/ but thought to be either autoimmune
Demyelinating disease insulting covers of nerve cells in the brain/ spinal cord are damaged
Interferon ramps down inflammation in the spinal cord → slows down progression of MS
Symptoms Visual Muscle coordination/ weakness Trouble w/ sensation
Main anatomical characteristics: scars/ inflammations
Scars lesions that form in the white matter
Inflammations caused by immune response
Amytrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Main symptoms are motor related → muscle weakness, spasms, are diagnosed through behavioral evaluation by a neurologist
Neurodegenerative characterized by the death of neurons which control voluntary muscles (both upper/ lower neurons) --> Only causes motor degeneration
Epilepsy Group of neurological disorders associated w/ seizures or fits (uncontrolled, jerking movements due to excessive uncoordinated) → although sometimes synchronous brain activity
Origins include (epilepsy) Head injury Brain tumors Brain infection Substance abuse/ withdrawl
Foci where epilepsy starts
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS): works as spinal cord stimulator and stimulating that nerve → could help patient w/ epliespy → could make it worse
Anti-eptiletic drugs (AEDs) treatment for epileptic seizures
Autism Specturm Disorders (ASD) A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interactions, communication, behavior
Austism “triad" communication stereotypic/ repetitive behaviors interaction
Communication an inability to develop speech to meet their daily communication needs
Stereotypic/ repetitive behaviors repetitive movements (head rolling, hand flapping, body rocking), ritualistic behavior, compulsive behaviors, self-injury
Interaction social reciprocity, a lack of social intitution, less eye contact, tantrums, emotion, recognition
Specturm disorder meaning that whole there are core features, most patients w/ autism fall along a spectrum of impairments
Asperger’s relatively normal language abilities/ intelligence
HFA (high functioning Austism) retained cognitive abilities w/ language delay
PDD-NOS (Pervasive developmental disorder- not otherwise specifed) atypical autism severe impairment in social/ communicative abilities, autism that doesn’t fit typical autism diagnositc categories
Exisiting DSM-V category- autism spectrum disorder (ASD) includes childhood disintergrative disorder (CDD), sensory processing disorder (SPD), Rett’s syndrome, savantism
Hyperserotonemia higher levels of the monoamine neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) found in the blood (whole blood serotonin or WBS)
Pentrace how much genetic variation (genotype) contributes to the condition (phenotype)
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) most common inherited form of mental retardation, is an x-linked disorder that occurs from the results of silencing a single gene on the X chronomsome (FMR1)
Physical features (FXS) Large or prominent ears Enlarged head circumference Elongated face
Behavioral symptoms (FXS) Anxiety, emotional lability, agression/ self-injurious behaviors FXS is the most common known cause of ASD BUT not all individuals w/ ASD have FMR1 mutations
Learning Disabilities Any sort of classification where the individual has difficulty learning in a typical manner
Dyslexia trouble w/ reading
Dsycalculia difficulty learning/ executing arithmetic, understanding numbers/ calculations
Dysgraphia impaired handwriting/ finger sequencing
Visual word form area part of the occipital-temporal lobe involved in reading
Attention Deficit Hyperacitivity Disorder (ADHD) A neurodevelopmental disorder charcterized by deficits in attention, often the result of or accompanied by heightened levels of activity
Broken into 2 type (ADHD) 1. inattentive 2. hyperactive/ impulsive
Inattentive limited focus, easily distracted, daydreams, struggles to follow insutrcutions
hyperactive/ impulsive impatient, fidgeting, talking non-stop, interrupting, difficulty, sitting stil
2 categories of treatment (ADHD) 1. behavioral 2. psychoparmacological
Behavioral including ehavior therapy, CBT, family counseling, education counseling
Psychopharmacological mainly through stimulant-based medications (methlphenidate, amphetamine salts) work on both nonrepinephrine (NA)/ dopamine (DA) release
Created by: lils33
Popular Psychology sets




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