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Psych Ch 10 Vocab

Life Span Development

developmental psychology the study of the changes that occur in people from birth through old age
cross-sectional study a method of studying developmental changes by comparing people of different ages at about the same time
cohort a group of people born during the same period in historical time
longitudinal study a method of studying developmental changes by evaluating the same people at different points in their lives
biographical (retrospective) study a method of studying developmental changes by reconstructing people's past through interviews and inferring the effects of past events on current behaviors
prenatal development development from conception to birth
embryo a developing human between 2 weeks and 3 months after conception
fetus a developing human between 3 months after conception and birth
placenta the organ by which an embryp or fetus is attached to its mother's uterus and that nourishes it during prenatal development
teratogens toxic substances such as alcohol or nicotine that cross the placenta and may result in birth defects
critical period a time when certain internal and extrenal influences have a major effect on development; at other periods, the same influences will have little or no effect
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) a disorder that occurs in children of women who drink alcohol during pregnancy that is characterized by facial deformities, stunted growth, and cognitive impairments
neonates newborn babies
rooting reflex the reflex that causes a newborn baby to turn its head toward something that touches its cheek and to grope around with its mouth
sucking reflex the newborn baby's tendency to suck on objects placed in the mouth
swallowing reflex the reflex that enables the newborn baby to swallow liquids without choking
grasping reflex the reflex that causes newborn babies to close their fists around anything that is put in their hands
stepping reflex the reflex that causes newborn babies to make little stepping motions if they are held upright with their feet just touching a surface
temperament characteristic patterns of emotional reactions and emotional self-regulation
developmental norms ages by which an average child achieves various developmental milestones
maturation an automatic biological unfolding of development in an organism as a function of the passage of time
sensory-motor stage In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development between birth and 2 years of age in which the individual develops object permanence and acquires the ability to form mental representations
object permanence the concept that things continue to exist even when they are out of sight
mental representations mental images or symbols (such as words) used to think about or remember an object, a person, or an event
preoperational stage In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development between 2 and 7 years of age in which the individual becomes able to use mental representations and language to describe, remember, and reason about the world, though only in an egocentric fashion
egocentric unable to see things from another's point of view
concrete-operational stage in Piaget's theory, the stage of development between 7 and 11 years of age in which the individual can attend to more than one thing at a time and understand someone else's point of view, though thinking is limited to concrete matters
principle of conservation the concept that the quantity of a substance is not altered by reversible changes in appearance
formal-operational stage in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development between 11 and 15 years of age in which the individual becomes capable of abstract thought
babbling a baby's vocalizations, consisting of repetition of consonant-vowel combinations
holophrases one-word sentences commonly used by children under 2 years of age
language acquisition device a hypothetical neural mechanism for acquiring language that is presumed to be "wired into" all humans
imprinting the tendency in certain species to follow the first moving thing (usually its mother) it sees after it is born or hatched
attachment emotional bond that develops in the first year of life that makes human babies cling to their caregivers for safety and comfort
autonomy sense of independence; a desire not to be conrolled by others
socialization process by which children learn the behaviors and attitudes appropriate to their family and culture
solitary play a child engaged in a recreational activity alone; the earliest form of play
parallel play two children playing side by side at similar activities but paying little or no attention to each other; the earliest kind of social interaction between toddlers
nonshared environment the unique aspects of the environment that are experienced differently by siblings even though they are reared in the same family
cooperative play two or more children engaged in play that requires interaction
peer group a network of same-aged friends and acquaintances who give one another emotional and social support
gender identity a little girl's knowledge that she is a girl, and a little boy's knowledge that he is a boy
gender constancy the realization that gender does not change with age
gender-role awareness knowledge of what behavior is appropriate for each gender
gender stereotypes general beliefs about characteristics that men and women are presumed to have
sex-typed behavior socially prescribed ways of behaving that differ for boys and girls
growth spurt a rapid increase in height and weight that occurs during adolescence
puberty the onset of sexual maturation, with accompanying physical development
menarche first menstrual period
imaginary audience Elkind's term for adolescents' delusion that they are constantly being observed by others
personal fable Elkind's term for adolescnets' delusion that they are unique, very important, and invulnerable
identity formation Erickson's term for the development of a stable sense of self necessary to make the transition from dependence on others to dependence on oneself
identity crisis a period of intense self-examination and decision making; part of the process of identity formation
cliques groups of adolescents with similar interests and strong mutual attachment
midlife crisis a time when adults discover they no longer feel fulfilled in their jovs or personal lives and attempts to make a decisive shift in career or lifestyle
midlife transition according to Levinson, a process whereby adults assess the past and formulate new goals for the future
menopause the time in a woman's life when menstruation ceases
Alzheimer's disease a neurological disorder, most commonly found in late adulthood, characterized by progressive losses in memory and cognition and changes in personality
Created by: 791715400