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Unit 5 Cognitive Psychology

intelligence the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
general intelligence according to Spearman and others, underlies all mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task as an intelligence test
factor analysis a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test, used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlies a person's total score
savant syndrome a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing
grit in psychology a passion and perseverance in the pursuit of long-term goals
emotional intelligence the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions
intelligence test a method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores
achievement test a test designed to assess what a person has learned
aptitude test a test designed to predict a person's future performance, aptitude is the capacity to learn
mental age a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet, the level of performance typically associated with kids of a certain chronological age.
Stanford- Binet the widely used American revision of Binet's original intelligence test
intelligence quotient defined originally as the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100. IQ=ma/ca*100
Wechsler adult intelligence scale the WAIS and its companion versions for children are the most widely used intelligence tests, they contain verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests
standardization defining uniform testing procedures and meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group
normal curve the bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall between the average, and fewer an fewer fall near the extremes
reliability the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as associated by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternative forms of the test, or on retesting
validity the extent to which a test measures or predicts what if is supposed to
content validity the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest
predictive validity the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict, it is assessed by comparing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior also called criterion- related validity
cohort a group of people sharing a common characteristic, such as from a given time period
crystallized intelligence our accumulated knowledge an verbal skills, tends to increase with age
fluid intelligence our ability to reason speedily and abstractly, tends to decrease with age especially during late adulthood
cross sectional study research that compares people of different ages at the same point in time
longitudinal study research that follows and retests the same people over time
intellectual disability a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence test score of 70 or below and difficulty adapting to the demands of life (formerly mental retardation)
down syndrome a condition of mild to serve intellectual disability and associated physical disorders caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21
heritability the proportion of variation among individuals in a group that we can attribute to genes. the heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied
stereotype threat a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype
Charles Spearman believed in one general intelligence (g factor) a common skill set underlies all intelligent behavior
L.L. Thurstone believed in several factors of intelligence
Howard Gardner 8 multiples of intelligence: visual, linguistic, logical/ mathematical, musical, bodily & kinesthetic, naturalistic, interpersonal, intrapersonal
Robert Sternberg 3 types of Intelligence Analytical – intelligence tests Creative – novel situations/ideas Practical – tasks
Daniel Goleman Social/ Emotional intelligence Perceive recognizes emotions in faces music stories Understand predicts emotions & how/why they change Manage knows how to express emotions in different situations Use emotions to facilitate adaptive or creative thinking
Created by: Addi678
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