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# AP Psych Unit Two

### 2023- 2024, Research Methods

Term | Definition |
---|---|

Scientific Attitude | facts speak for themselves, typically curious, skeptical and humility |

Hindsight Bias | looking back in time and the event seemed as if it were inevitable |

Overconfident | when we are more confident that we know something than we are correct |

Anchoring Affect | cognitive bias influence you yo rely heavily on the first piece of evidence |

Hypothesis | a guess, not proven yet |

Theory | organized observation and tries to predict outcomes |

Operational Definitions | 1)a precise statement of the procedures+concepts 2) measured numerically, you should be able to recall and replicate |

Validity | testing what is suppose to be tested |

Reliability | are we getting consistent results |

descriptive methods | survey, case study, naturalistic observation |

correlational methods | predict different relationships |

experimental methods | manipulate variables |

Case Study | one person to learn about people in general positive: depth of information is vast problem: to specific, doesn't much |

Survey | self reported attitude, representative and random sampling postivite: cheap and fast problem: wording affect, low response rate, inaccurate sampling bias, not random |

Population | where samples are being drawn from |

Naturalistic Observation | watching something in its normal surroundings problem:can not manipulate variables |

Hawthorne Affect | acting differently when we know were being watched, bad thing |

only an experiment | can show causation |

correlation | if do things relate or go together they correlate |

correlation coefficient | how closely 2 things go together. from +1 to -1 and if it is closer to 0 it is not very correlated seen through R value |

Positive Correlation | going in same direction, does not matter if they are both neg or pos |

Negative Correlation | different directions |

Scatter Plots | 2 variable in x an y, pos v. neg |

Confounding Variable | 3rd variable, can through experiment off, protections against such are, double blind study, random selection, operational bias, random assignment |

Illusionary Correlation | superstitions, reception of a relationship where none exists |

Experiments | cause and effect! pos- find out change neg-confounding cariable, experimental bias and ethics |

cause keywords | causation, cause, causual |

Random Selection | sampling bias eliminated |

Random Assignment | either control or independent variable |

Single Blind Study | only the participate is aware of which group they are in |

Double Blind Study | researcher and participate are unaware of the group |

Placebo | Fake Drug |

Placebo Affect | giving fake, person thinks its real and they feel the affects of it |

Ethincs - Debrief the RAIN | five ethics need to be acknowledged - R(risks). A(anonymity), I(informed), N(no coercion) Debrief |

Why do we study animals? | biology systems are more simplified, shorter life cycles and some experiments are not ethical for humans |

Central Tendency | center of a bunch of numbers, mean, mode, median |

Mean | average |

Mode | most occur |

Median | 50th percentile |

Range | difference of highest to lowest |

Standard Deviation | how much numbers deviate from the mean, lower number is better |

Normal Distribution | Normal Curve (bell curve), mmm (mode,mean,median) end up in the middle |

Inferential Statistics | determining whether it happened by chance or if the experiment can be applied to the population |

Sample Size | the larger the sample size, the more accurate and better the results |

Statistical Significance | how likely it is thata result occured by chance, p value is probablity, should be less than 0.5 or 5% |

Making Inference | 2 pillars of measurement, reliability |

face validity | surface level, just looking at it |

content validity | test knowledge you want to measure |

predictive validity | predicts what is suppose to happen |