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chapters 11-17

1a. Pharmacology review ch 11-17

What is the first oral therapy for interstitial cystitis? pentosan polysulfate sodium (Elmiron)
What term is used to describe the working units of the kidneys? nephrons
Which of the following should a patient undergoing dialysis NOT take? antacids
What hormone is diminished in patients with anemia due to renal failure? erythropoietin
What drug is often given in combination with flutamide (Eulexin) to treat BPH? leuprolide (Eligard, Lupron Depot, Viadur)
Which of the following agents for urinary tract problems is available OTC? phenazopyridine (Azo-Standard, Uristat)
What is an example of a "loop" diuretic? furosemide (Lasix)
What is the clinical syndrome resulting from renal dysfunction called? uremia
What is the only osmotic diuretic on the market? mannitol (Osmitrol)
What do the kidneys regulate? blood plasma volume , concentration of waste products in the blood, plasma acid-base balance, electrolyte concentrations
What antibiotic (or combination) may be used to treat urinary tract infections (UTIs)? amoxicillin (Amoxil, Trimox), amoxicillin-clavulanate (Augmentin), ciprofloxacin (Cipro), nitrofurantoin (Macrobid, Macrodantin)
When taking which of the following antibiotics (or combinations) should sunscreen be used? sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (Bactrim, Cotrim, Septra)
What class of drugs is commonly used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)? alpha-adrenergic blockers
During what stage of renal failure does the patient require chronic dialysis? end-stage renal disease
What is a goal of renal therapy? reestablishing an appropriate intravascular volume ,restricting fluids in volume-overload patients ,treating underlying fluid, electrolyte, or pH problems
Which of the following drugs used for renal disease may be given by mouth? cinacalcet (Sensipar)
Which drug below causes immature red blood cells (reticulocytes) to be released from bone marrow into the bloodstream? epoetin alfa (Epogen, Procrit)
Who should never handle crushed tablets of finasteride (Propecia, Proscar)? pregnant women
What drug is an amino acid derivative and is a cofactor needed for the transformation of long-chain fatty acids? levocarnitine (Carnitor)
Which of the following drugs may be used to prevent rejection in kidney transplant patients? cyclosporine (Sandimmune)
Which of the antiplatelet drugs listed below is a monoclonal antibody? abciximab (ReoPro)
Beta blockers may be used in combination with what other drug to reduce the risk of death or recurrence following a myocardial infarction? aspirin
Which of the following drug classes is not used to treat angina? angiotensin II- receptor antagonists
Which of the following drugs used for TIAs and stroke prevention blocks ADP receptors, reducing platelet adhesion and aggregation? clopidogrel (Plavix)
Which of the following is a Class I or membrane stabilizing antiarrhythmic drug? flecainide (Tambocor) ,lidocaine (Xylocaine) ,procainamide (Pronestyl) ,quinidine
Which antiarrhythmic drug also has anticonvulsant properties? phenytoin (Dilantin)
What does the systolic blood pressure reading represent? cardiac output
What term describes a thickening of the heart muscle in an enlarged heart? myocardial hypertrophy
Which fibrinolytic agent below binds to fibrin, converts plasminogen to plasmin, and is incompatible with dextrose? tenecteplase (TNKase)
What drug below is a phosphodieterase inhibitor used for IV therapy of congestive heart failure and calcium channel blocker intoxication? milrinone (Primacor)
Which of the following anticoagulant drugs is available in tablet form? warfarin (Coumadin)
Diuretics help to lower blood pressure by reducing preload
What term describes an abnormal, hyper-excitable site within the heart that becomes the dominant pacemaker? ectopic pacemaker
What pacemaker cells of the heart generate a normal cardiac rhythm? sinoatrial (SA) node
Which of the following antihypertensive drugs is also available in a topical form that can be used to treat baldness? minoxidil (Loniten, Rogaine)
What class of drugs are used to dissolve clots that have already formed? fibrinolytic agents
Which of the following drugs is an inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme and is used to treat congestive heart failure and hypertension? lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril)
Which of the following is a selective aldosterone antagonist used to treat hypertension? eplerenone (Inspra)
Which of the following antihypertensive drugs binds to angiotensin II-receptors and rarely causes coughing as an adverse effect? valsartan (Diovan)
What form of angina is characterized by coronary artery spasm? variant angina
What form of enzyme cyclooxygenase is associated with inflammatory pain, but not with protection of the GI lining? COX-2
Which of the following drugs is least likely to produce GI irritation at analgesic doses? celecoxib (Celebrex)
What patient should not take misoprostol (Cytotec), a drug sometimes used to counter the gastric irritating effects of NSAIDs? pregnant women
NSAIDs can interact with which of the following drug classes? other NSAIDs, including aspirin, diuretics , oral hypoglycemics ,digoxin
Which of the following is an example of a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD)? adalimunab (Humira) , anakinra (Kineret) , methotrexate (Rheumatrex) , azathioprine (Imuran)
Which of the following muscle relaxant acts on benzodiazepine receptors? diazepam (Valium)
What substances reduce pain, fever, and inflammation? salicylates
Which of the following muscle relaxants is a DEA scheduled controlled substance? diazepam (Valium)
How do salicylates reduce fever? increasing blood flow to skin
What dose of aspirin (per day)may be fatal? 10 g
Why should aspirin not be given to children? Reye's syndrome can develop in children who have been exposed to chicken pox.
What is the prototype NSAID? aspirin
Which of the following drugs used to treat gout interferes with leucocytes, reducing their mobility and joint phagocytosis? colchicine
What prostaglandin molecule, which facilitates platelet aggregation, is inhibited by low dose (81 mg-325 mg) aspirin? thromboxane A-2
What clinical effect of aspirin is also produced by acetaminophen (Tylenol)? fever reduction
What effect of nonnarcotic analgesics most commonly limits their use? gastrointestinal disturbances
What is the most serious adverse effect associated with acetaminophen? liver damage
What is the effect of preventing acetylcholine (ACh) destruction on skeletal muscle? paralysis by fatigue
When injected, a 30 mg dose of which of the following NSAIDs is as effective as 12 mg of morphine in relieving pain? ketorolac (Toradol)
What is a laboratory test for rheumatoid arthritis? ESR
What is not a potential adverse effect of corticosteroids? hypotension due to increased sodium excretion
What is a potential use of progestins in women? birth control , prevention of uterine cancer in post-menopausal women taking hormone replacement therapy , treatment of menstrual dysfunctions , reducing the incidence of endometrial hyperplasia
When a patient has had the thyroid surgically removed, due to cancer, for example, what is the drug of choice for chronic therapy? levothyroxine (Levothroid, Synthroid)
What is needed for calcium to get into the bone? vitamin D
Which of the following drugs or drug classes may cause male impotence? alcohol ,corticosteroids , haloperidol (Haldol) ,opiates
Which of the following drugs is used to treat genital herpes? acyclovir (Zovirax)
Which synthetic insulin is the longest acting? glargine (Lantus)
What is the most common form of diabetes? type II
Which of the following drugs act to prevent bone loss by modulating estrogen receptors? raloxifene (Evista)
Which drug listed below has been shown to speed the healing of lower extremity diabetic ulcers? becaplermin gel (Regranex)
Which of the following drugs used to treat male impotence does not act by inhibiting the enzyme phosphodiesterase? alprostadil (Caverject, Edex, Muse)
Which of the following oral hypoglycemic agents acts by interfering with carbohydrate metabolism and glucose absorption? acarbose (Precose)
What large molecule is broken down by thyroid cells to produce thyroid hormones? thyroglobulin
Which of the following antibiotics is often the drug of choice for treating syphilis? penicillin G benzathine (Bicillin L-A)
Which of the following sexually transmitted diseases is caused by a fungus? candidiasis
What is a danger of using nicotine in combination with estrogen? increased risk of blood clots
Which of the following synthetic human growth hormones is recommended for used in children of families of short stature? Growth hormone treatment is not recommended in this population.
Which hormone listed below is not released by the pituitary gland? thyroxine (T-4)
Which of the following drugs is used for emergency contraception? levonorgestrel (Plan B)
Which of the following drugs may interact adversely with oral contraceptives? erythromycin ,carbamazepine ,prednisolone ,clofibrate
In general, what is the maximum dosage and the number of consecutive weeks that superpotent steroids are given? 45 to 50 g per week; 2 weeks
Which of the following drugs, derived from chrysanthemums, is available OTC and is used for head lice? pyrethrins (Rid Mousse)
Which of the following drugs is not used to treat fungal infections? fluorouracil (Efudex)
What term is used to describe the excessive response of the skin to sun in the presence of a sensitizing agent? phototoxicity
What skin condition is methotrexate, an inhibitor of normal bone marrow tissue cell growth, used to treat? psoriasis
What drug applied topically for wound healing is also used as an anticonvulsant? phenytoin (Dilantin)
What drug is used to treat chronic ketatococonjunctivitis (dry eye)? cyclosporine (Restasis)
Which of the following antibiotics is available in a topical dosage form? clindamycin (Cleocin T) , metronidazole (MetroGel) , mupirocin (Bactroban)
What chemical was traditionally used in the eyes of newborns to prevent gonococcal infection? silver nitrate
Which of the following is a type of sweat gland? eccrine
Which of the following is given orally to treat glaucoma? acetazolemide (Diamox)
Which of the following otic agents contains an antibiotic to fight infection and a steroid to reduce inflammation? ciprofloxacin-dexamethasone (Ciprodex)
What is the top layer of skin known as? epidermis
What term defines chemicals that free objects from pathogenic organisms or render them inert? disinfectant
Which drug used to treat glaucoma may cause light-colored eyes to turn brown? latanoprost (Xalatan)
Which of the following drugs is used to treat acne vulgaris? tretinoin (Retin-A)
What is the most commonly occurring eye disease? glaucoma
What drug is used to treat cold sores? docosanol (Abreva)
Which of the following drugs is a neurotoxin used to treat facial wrinkles? botulinum toxin type A (Botox)
What causes age-related macular degeneration (AMD)? unknown
What drug is recommended by ACLS guidelines for cardiac emergencies and Code Blue carts? atropine , dopamine (Intropin) , naloxone (Narcan) , verapamil (Isoptin)
What is the drug of choice for treating an overdose of acetaminophen (Tylenol)? acetylcysteine (Mucomyst)
Which of the following is a recommended or common addition to total parenteral nutrition mixtures? sodium , vitamin B-6 ,copper , insulin, regular
Which dietary supplement is incorrectly paired with its medicinal use? garlic -- impotence
How can grapefruit juice affect the pharmacological disposition of many drugs? It affects their metabolism.
What characterizes marasmus? It is due to an imbalance between protein and calorie intake and produces growth retardation.
Which of the following is a water-soluble vitamin? vitamin C
Which of the following drugs may cause tinnitus (ringing in the ear), nausea, and vomiting in children with doses greater than 150mg/kg? aspirin
What organ maintains the largest stores of fat-soluble vitamins? liver
What vitamin found in dairy products, liver, and fish oils is also known at retinol? vitamin A
What reversal agent may be used to treat respiratory depression caused by an opioid (narcotic) overdose? naloxone (Narcan)
What bioterrorism agent is derived from castor beans, inhibits protein synthesis, and has no known treatment? ricin
What herbal supplement, sometimes referred to as "Nature's Prozac", is used for mild-to-moderate depression? St. John's wort
Which of the following is the leading cause of fatal poisonings in children? iron tablets
What is a complication associated with total parenteral nutrition (TPN)? acid-base imbalance , high serum lipid concentrations , electrolyte imbalance , liver toxicity
What is another name for vitamin B-9? folic acid
What drug may be used to treat cholinergic agonist-induced bradycardia? atropine
In contrast to two-in-ones, three-in-one TPN solutions may crack or oil out.
What form of calcium is most commonly used in antacids? calcium carbonate
What term describes a method in which the patient is fed through a vein? total parenteral nutrition
Created by: danz

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