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Psych ch3


action potential electrical signals that move down the neuron's axon
adrenal gland located ontop of the kidneys in-charge of the stress response
agonist a drug that mimics/strengthens the effects of a neurotransmitter
all or none neuron signal either reaches the threshold of excitation or dosent
allele type of a gene
amygdala structure in the system controls emotions and relating emotions to memories
antagonist a drug that either blocks or impedes a neurotransmitter
auditory cortex a strip of cortex in the temporal lobe that is responsible for auditory processing
autonomic nervous system controls internal organs and glands
axon major extension of the soma
biological perspective psychological disorders stem from biological imbalances
Broca's area region in the left hemisphere that is responsible for language production
Central nervous system brain and spinal cord
cerebellum hind brain structure controls balance coordination, motor skills and maybe processing memories
Cerebral cortex the surface of the brain- associated with higher mental capacities
what does CT stand for computerised tomography
CT scan computer coordinates and integrates multiple x-rays of a specific area
corpus callosum a band of neural fibres that connect the two hemispheres of the brain
Dendrite branch extension of the soma- receives signals from other neurons TV antenna
Diabetes related to lack of insulin production
what does EEG stand for electroencephalography
EEG records the electrical activities of the brain via electrodes on the scalp
endocrine system a series of glands that produce hormones
epigenetics the study of gene environment interactions
fight or flight heightened sensory capacity to fight or run away
what system controls fight or flight the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system
forebrain largest portion of the brain that contains the cerebral cortex, the thalamus and the lymbic structure
fraternal twins developed from 2 different eggs that are fertilized by different sperm. Same genetic material as regular siblings
frontal lobe part of the cerebral cortex that is involved in reasoning, motor control, emotion and language
What does fMRI stand for functional magnetic resonance imaging
what does fMRI do? shows the changes in metabolic activity over time
genetic environmental correlation genes affect our environment and our environment affects our genes
glial cell nervous cell that provides metabolic and physical support to neurons ex. insulation, communication and waste control
gonad secretes sexual hormones and mediates sexual motivation and behaviour
gyrus the bumps or ridges on the cerebral cortex
hemisphere left or right part of the brain
hindbrain contains the medulla, pons and the cerebellum
hippocampus located in the temporal lobe and is associated with learning and memory
homeostasis state of equilibrium
hormone chemical that is secreted by the endocrine glands
hypothalamus forebrain structure regulates sexual motivation/behaviour and homeostasis. Mediator between nervous and endocrine system
laterlization each hemisphere is associated with specific processes
limbic system structures involved in processing emotions and memory
longitudinal fissure deep groves in the brain's cortex
MRI magnetic resonance imaging- magnetic fields produce a picture of the tissue being imaged
medulla hindbrain structure that controls automated processes ex. blood pressure, breathing etc
membrane potential difference in charge across the neuronal membrane
midbrain division of the brain located between the forebrain and the hindbrain. controls recticular formation
motor cortex a strip of cortex involved in movement
myelian sheath insulates the axon (wires)
neuron nervous system cells that process information
neuroplasticity the nervous system's ability to change
neurotransmitter chemical messengers of the nervous system
Nodes of Ranvier the space between the mylean sheath that expose the axon
occipital lobe part of the cerebral cortex associated with visual processing. contains the primary visual cortex
pancreas secretes hormones that regulate blood sugar
parasympathetic nervous system connects the brain and spinal cord to the muscles, organs and senses in the periphery of the body
polygenic multiple genes affect a given trait
pituitary gland secretes key hormones that direct the other glands of the endocrine system (the boss)
pons hindbrain structure that connects the brain and spinal cord. involved in regulating brain activity during sleep
what does PET stand for? Positron emission tomography
PET scan inject the patient with mildly radioactive substance and monitoring the changes in blood flow to the different regions of the brain
Prefrontal cortex area in the frontal lobe responsible for higher level cognitive functioning
psychotropic medication drugs that treat psychiatric symptoms by fixing neurotransmitter balance
range of reaction sets a boundary in which we can operate and our environment interacts with genes to determine where we fall in the range
receptor protien on the surface of the cell where neurotransmitters attatch
resting potential the state of readiness of a neuron membrane’s potential between signals
reticular formation midbrain structure important in regulating the sleep/wake cycle, arousal, alertness, and motor activity
reuptake neurotransmitter is pumped back into the neuron that released it
semipermeable membrane cell membrane that allows smaller molecules or molecules without an electrical charge to pass through it, while stopping larger or highly charged molecules
soma the cell body
somatic nervous system relays sensory and motor information to and from the CNS
somatosensory cortex essential for processing sensory information from across the body, such as touch, temperature, and pain
substantia nigra midbrain structure where dopamine is produced; involved in control of movement
sulcus depressions or grooves in the cerebral cortex
sympathetic nervous system involved in stress-related activities and functions
synaptic cleft small gap between two neurons where communication occurs
synaptic vesicle storage site for neurotransmitters
temporal lobe part of cerebral cortex associated with hearing, memory, emotion, and some aspects of language; contains primary auditory cortex
terminal button axon terminal containing synaptic vesicles
thalamus sensory relay for the brain
threshold of excitation level of charge in the membrane that causes the neuron to become active
thyroid secretes hormones that regulate growth, metabolism, and appetite
ventral tegmental area (VTA) midbrain structure where dopamine is produced: associated with mood, reward, and addiction
Wernicke’s area important for speech comprehension
Created by: eillis.grad2025
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