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PSC100 Chapter 2

Cognitive Neuroscience

action potential electrical signal in a neuron, which travels down the axon once an activation threshold is crossed
axon the part of a neuron that carries nerve impulses AWAY from the cell body, towards the receiving dendrites of other neurons
behavioral genetics attempts to link behavior (phenotypes) and genes (genotypes)
blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal signal used to generate images in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), indicating blood oxygen levels throughout the brain
brain stimulation stimulation or disruption of brain activity to study causal effects on perceptual and cognitive function
Broca's area area in the brain's LEFT FRONTAL lobe, with functions linked to SPEECH PRODUCTION
cell body (soma) the neuron's core, which receives INPUT and provides the METABOLIC MACHINERY for the neuron
cerebellum located near the brain stem, responsible for control of FINE MOTOR movements and possible the coordination of complex thoughts
cerebral cortex thin, folded sheet of neurons constituting the outer layer of the brain
chromosome long strand of DNA, human cells normally contain 23 pairs
cognitive neuroscience interdisciplinary study of the neural mechanisms of cognition and behavior
corpus callosum large bundle of neural fibers (axons) forming a massive interconnection between the two hemispheres of the brain
correlation and causation problem mistaken assumption that correlation implies causation
dendrite branchlike component of a neuron, receiving INPUT from sensory receptors or other neurons
DNA molecule shaped like a twisted ladder, known as a double-helix configuration, and containing genes
dualism (DESCARTES) there is a distinction between the physical world, where the brain resides, and a non physical world, where the mind and soul reside
electrocorticography (ECoG) (intracranial recording) method of recording electrical signals from electrodes placed on surgically exposed cerebral cortex
electroencephalography (EEG) method of using electrodes on the scalp to measure electrical activity in the brain
electrophysiology direct measurement of electrical activity from neurons, either from single cells or from an aggregate of cells
epigenetics study of external factors that affect how genes operate
event-related potential (ERP) time-locked EEG waveform that occurs in response to a stimulus, event, or task
fMRI subtraction method fMRI analysis technique that compares patterns of brain activity for elicited by different stimuli or tasks
frontal lobe region in the FRONT of each brain hemisphere, involved in thinking, planning, decision making, and cognitive control
functional brain imaging imaging that uses medical technology to non-invasively study brain activity
functional brain mapping task of linking cognitive and perceptual functions to specific brain regions
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique that measures and localized blood oxygen levels throughout the brain to infer brain activity
functional specialization the principle that different brain areas serve different perceptual and cognitive skills
genes heritable codes in almost every cell that dictate how an organism develops and functions
genotype entire set of genes that an organism carries
glial cells non-neuronal cells in the brain and spinal cord that provide both structural and functional support to the neurons
hemisphere left or right half of the brain
invasiveness among cognitive neuroscience techniques, the degree to which a research method impacts the individual whose brain is being studied
knock-out research technique that involves rendering a gene absent or unexpressed
lobe one of the four major brain zones in each hemisphere: frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) widely used technique for studying cognition, involving the use of a powerful magnetic field and brief radio pulses
materialism the modern view that the mind is entirely a product of the brain
module specialized region in the brain that performs a specific function
neuropsychology study of the behavioral consequences of brain damage
neurotransmitter a chemical through which neurons communicate with other networked neurons
occipital lobe region in the back of each brain hemisphere, devoted to visual perception
parietal lobe a region in the upper back side of each brain hemisphere, important for controlling action
phenotype all of an organism's observable traits resulting from the interactions of its genotype and its environment
plastic referring to the ability for the strength of neuronal connections to change with learning and experience
postsynaptic referring to the RECEIVING neuron in the transmission of a neural signal
presynaptic referring the the SENDING neuron in the transmission of an electrical impulse
primary visual cortex area at the back of each brain hemisphere, specialized for basic visual feature processing
prosopagnosia neurological condition characterized by difficulty recognizing faces; also known as face blindness
region of interest (ROI) brain area designated by an investigator to be the focus of study
reverse inference illogical inference of a mental process (cognitive or emotional) from the activation of a particular brain region
spatial resolution ability of a research method to pinpoint where neural activity occurs (e.g., ranging from neurons to brain areas of varying size)
split-brain patient a patient whose CORPUS COLLOSUM, which helps the two brain hemispheres communicate with each other, has been severed
synapse gap between neurons, across which chemical or electrical signals are transmitted
temporal lobe a region in the LOWER side of each brain hemisphere, important for COMPLEX PERCEPTION, MEMORY, and LANGUAGE
temporal resolution the ability of a research method to pinpoint which neural activity occurs over milliseconds, seconds, minutes, or longer
transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) brain stimulation technique that involves applying a weak electrical current across the skull to modify brain activity, thereby increasing or decreasing the likelihood that underlying neurons will fire
transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) a method to temporarily disrupt brain activity using focal magnetic pulses targeted over different areas of the scalp
Wernicke's area region in the brain's left temporal lobe, important for comprehension of language
Created by: user-1752726
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