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# RMDA Exam 2

TermDefinition
Nominal Scales -No numerical or quantitative properties -Levels represent different categories or groups -One category is not better than another category -Ethnicity, zip code, gender, year in school, phone number, major, glasses/no glasses/ contacts, ect
Ordinal Scales -Order the levels from lowest to highest; the intervals between each level dont have to be equal -The order means something on a continuum
Interval Scales -Intervals between levels are equal in size, but may not be equal in a person's mind -Can be summarized using means -No absolute zero
Ratio Scale -Equal intervals -Absolute zero -Can be summarized using mean -Same as interval scale but also has a true zero
Writing Methods Section - Participants -One paragraph -Gender, mean age, range or SD of ages, ethnicity, number of participants, consent/ IRB approved consent, informed consent, different conditions (may put in procedure), missing data (attrition), how many people assigned to each condition
Writing Methods Section - Procedure Just how you use the thing front the POV of participant and how the participant did the thing
Writing Methods Section - Coding Schemes -If you use anything where you have a cut off Manipulating turning the values into anything else that they are
Writing Methods Section -Participants -Any materials used/ equipment -Procedure -Coding Schemes
Quantitative approaches -Focus: behavior that can be quantified -Assign numerical values to responses and measures -Typically uses larger samples -Can do statistical analysis, calculate means -Surveys, correlational studies, experiments
Qualitative approaches -Focuses on behavior in natural settings -Focus groups -Describe themes that emerge from data -Data are non-numerical and depressed in words and/or images -Researcher draws conclusions -Studies can have quantitative and qualitative aspects
Naturalistic observation - Field work or field observations -Observations made in a natural setting (over a period of time), uses several techniques to collect data -Describe and understand how people in a social or cultural setting live, work, and experience the setting
Naturalistic observation - Goals -Describe setting, events, and persons -Analyze categories that emerge -Researcher interpret what's occurred -Gen hypotheses that help explain data -Write a final report of results organized around themes -Accurate descriptions+objective interps
Naturalistic observation - Participate -Direct access to group -May lose objectivity
Naturalistic observation - Pros -Useful in complex and novel settings -Naturalistic behavior, most ecologically valid
Naturalistic observation - Cons -Cannot be used to study all issues -Less useful when studying well defined hypotheses under precisely specific conditions -Must constantly reanalyze+revise hypothesis -Time consuming -No control over confounds -Analyses depend on responses
Naturalistic observation - Not Participate -Just observing -Remaining objective -Never part of the group; may not choose to incorporate you; may change behavior
Naturalistic observation - Concealment about research purposes -Decide if you’re gonna tell them about research purposes -Pros and cons: reactivity, invasion of privacy
Systematic Observation -Observation of specific behaviors in a particular setting -Coding schemes
Systematic Observation - Methodological issues -Equipment (paper and pens, recording) -Reactivity -Reliability / Consistency -How are you ensuring reliability in your studies -Interrater reliability -Test retest -Split half -Sampling
Case studies -Description of an individual -Used in medicine, psychiatry, psychology, ect -Psychobiography -Valuable for rare or unusual situations -Limitations of these unusual situations
Psychobiography A type of case study where a researcher applies psychological theory to explain the life of an individual
Archival research -Uses previously compiled information to answer research questions -statistical records, medical records, newspapers, ect -Content Analysis of Documents
Archival research - Limitations Region specific, difficult to obtain, original information collected by someone else may not be complete
What do surveys measure - Knowledge -Information re: current events, political or consumer choices -Awareness of public health services, vaccines, ect
What do surveys measure - Attitudes and beliefs -Preferences or evaluations (attitudes towards groups, ethnic groups, ect) -Beliefs about political or social events (which party provides bete security) -Feelings or moods (quality of life, depression, marital satisfaction, ect)
What do surveys measure - Behavior -Behavioral intentions (intent to vote, financial plans, ect) -Self-reports of previous or on-going behavior (voting, drug use, ect)
Defining research objectives -Descriptive -Test hypothesis -Examine generalizability of experimental results -Predict an outcome -Pragmatic/ applied
Constructing survey questions -Simplicity -Avoid double barreled questions -Avoid loaded questions -Avoid negative wording -Avoid "yea-saying" and "nay-saying"
Closed-ended items -Specific rating scale or highly structured prompts -Most relate for concrete behaviors -An attitude can be addressed in several ways
Closed-ended items - Direct (face valid) assessment Attitude questions
Closed-ended items - Behavioral (content valid) indicators (same concept using open-ended questions) Behavior questions
Closed-ended items - Reasons to use -Chief virtue: clear operationalization -Chief liability: potentially insensitive
Chief virtue: clear operationalization -Specific and concrete; we know exactly what the participant is responding to -Easy to quantify and use statistically -Can be tested for reliability
Chief liability: potentially insensitive -Brief and simply worded; potentially superficial -“Top down”; issues are imposed on the participant -Discrimination studies; no options for “has no attitude” -Attitudes / moods; not sensitive to participants' personal perspectives
Closed-ended items - Rating scales -Closed-ended question can use specific responses on rating scale -Provide alternatives -Likert rating scale -Graphic rating scale -Semantic differential scales -Nonverbal scales for children -Labeling response alternatives
Graphic rating scale -Two end points and participants enters answer along a line that is 100mm long -Using a ruler experimenter can now score answer from 1 to 100
Semantic differential scales -Examines respondents meaning of concepts -Concepts rated on a series of bipolar adjectives -strong/weak, active/passive, quiet/loud
Nonverbal scales for children -Range of faces for pain, or taste perception, satisfaction, happiness
Labeling response alternatives -Labeling all of the options not just the endpoints
Likert rating scale -5 point or 7 point scale from strongly agree to strongly disagree
Open-Ended Questions -General / textual -More sensitive to the respondent -More difficult to interpret
Self-report questionnaire -“Paper and pencil” or internet based -Assume at least a moderate reading level -Cheap and easy to administer -Internet: representativeness very dubious
Face-to-face interview -“Door step”; formal research center, telephone -Allows in-depth qualitative questions -Many studies combine questionnaire and interview formats
General issues in surveys - Cost/ population access -Different methods are more/ less likely to reach certain populations -Disfranchised / poor populations often not reached by internet or telephone
General issues in surveys - Participant sophistication -Participants may not be able to accurately report certain topics -Rationality bias; many questions (incorrectly?) assume a rational reason for behavior
Social desirability responding -Clear face-valid items addressing embarrasing topics yield less valid responses -Wording elicts innaccurate responses -Populations differ in social desirability responding; may be a confound in studying group differences
Question order -Questions trigger participant’s memory or attention, and can bias questions that follow -You want questions on survey to be first rather than demographic information because getting the information is better than knowing the demographic
Bias/ fraud in survey research -Social research is increasingly important to political and cultural debates -Pressure for confirmity results encourages bias or outright fraud
Probability (random) sampling -Recruit of part. to maz rep of sample to known pop -Uses some form of random selection -Requires each member of population has known probability of being selected -Most ext. valid approach to sampling gen. pop. -May not be totally naive to exp
Non-probability sampling -Uses available samples for convenience, or targeted outreach to unusual or small populations Selection may be either systematic or haphazard Often most ext. valid approach to unusual groups, No sampling frame available
Snowball / respondent driven sampling (RDS) -Early participants are paid to recruit others, who recruit others, ect
Internal validity Can we validly determine what is causing the results of the experiment?
General research hypothesis The experimental outcome (values of DV) is caused only by the experiment itself (IV)
Posttest-only design -Only a test done after IV is done
Pretest-posttest design -A pretest is given to each group prior to introduction of the experimental manipulation Assures that groups are equivalent at the beginning of the experiment Can quickly measure changes that occur from the pretest to the posttest
Independent groups design Between-subjects design Participants only participate in one group
Repeated measures design Within-subjects design Same participants in all conditions
Complete counterbalancing -All possible trial orders are presented Typically done with along with gender or other participants variables Used with repeated measures design because same person serves as own control
Latin squares When you have many possible orders Can be used for condition order and trial order in each condition Each treatment only occurs once in each row and once in each column
Matched pairs design Goal is to match people on a participant characteristic Not completely random assignment Find 2 ppl w/ same characteristic then each gets randomly assigned to a condition Usually for experiments with two conditions Useful to control for confounds
Cross-sectional Same age, no groups (demonstration studies) Different age groups (most popular design) Same age, different ability groups (age-matched controls and age-held constant design
Longitudinal Age (when kids are 6, 12, and 18 months old) Ability (when kids go from crawling to walking) Pre/post intervention Microgenetic
Null hypothesis H0: the means of the populations from which the samples were drawn equal H0: any difference between the M for the experimental group and the M for the control group is by chance alone
Research hypothesis H1: the means of the population from which the samples were drawn are not equal
Statistical significance Low probability that the means are actually equal and you just got the results with lots of error We use alpha level of .05 5 out of 100 chance that results are due to standard error
Type I errors Made when the null hypothesis is rejected but the null hypothesis is actually true We think there's an effect but there's actually not Means are same but think they are diff Called a false positive Obtained when large value obtained by chance
Type II errors -Made when the null hypothesis is accepted although in the population the research hypothesis is true We think theres no effect but there actually is an effect Called a false negative
Meaning of the t statistics larger the tscore, more dif there is between groups smaller tscore,more similarity there is between groups tscore of 3 means that the groups are three times as diff from each other as they are w/in each other Every t value has a p value to go with it
Independent samples t test Compare means between two groups on the same DV Different people contributed data DV must be either interval or ratio scale IV must be categorical groups (control or experimental, ect) Different participants in each group
Paired samples t test Used to compare a pair of values from same participant Same person contributed data (two memory test scores in two different conditions, height and weight for same person, ect) Data should be continuous not categorical
3 ways to give authors credit for ideas in paragraph -According to Jones and Smith (2002), [paraphrase of idea] -According to some researchers (Jones & Smith, 2002), [paraphrase of idea] -According to some researchers, [paraphrase of idea] (Jones & Smith, 2002).
Paraphrasing Read to make sure you understand the material Read again and make notes as you read Write down the main ideas to paraphrase
Sigmund Freud: Champion of the Unconscious by Gerald R. Smith and Thomas T. Ferguson that was published in the journal Great Psychologists in volume 13 on pages 241-276 in 2001. Smith, G.R, Ferguson, T (2001). Sigmund Freud: Champion of the unconscious, Great Psychologists, 13, 241-276.
Created by: axniss001
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