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# PSYC Chapter Two

### MTA PSYC 1011 Chapter Two: Research Methods

Term | Definition |
---|---|

Base Rate | How common a trait or behavior is in the general population. |

Between-Subjects Design | When in an experiment, researchers assign different groups to the control or experimental condition. |

Blind | Being unaware of who is in the experimental and control groups. |

Case Study | Research design that examines one person (or small group) in depth over an extended time period. |

Central Tendency | The measure of the central scores in a dataset, or where the group tends to cluster. |

Control Group | The group of participants that do not receive the independent variable in an experiment. |

Correlational Design | A research design that examines how much two variables are associated. |

Demand Characteristics | Cues that participants pick up on that can allow them to guess the purpose of the study they're in. |

Dependent Variable | The variable that's measured to see the effects of the independent variable. |

Descriptive Statistics | Numerical characterizations that describe data. |

Double-Blind | When the researchers nor the participants are aware of who is in the experimental or control group. |

Existence Proofs | A demonstration that a psychological phenomenon can happen. |

Experiment | A research design that uses random assignment of participants to conditions and directly manipulates the independent variable. Can infer causation. |

Experimental Group | The group that receives the manipulation in an experiment. |

Experimenter Expectancy Effect | When a researcher's hypothesis leads them to unintentionally bias the outcome of a study. |

External Validity | How much we can generalize findings to real-world settings. |

Heuristic | A mental shortcut that streamlines our thinking to make sense of things in the world. |

Illusory Correlation | The perception of an association between two variables where none exists. |

Independent Variable | The variable that is manipulated by an experimenter. |

Inferential Statistics | Mathematical methods that allow us to determine if we can generalize findings from our sample to the full population. |

Informed Consent | Informing research participants of what is involved in a study before asking them to participate. |

Internal Validity | The extent to which we can make cause-and-effect relationships from a study. |

Mean | The average of scores. A measure of central tendency. |

Median | The middle score in a dataset. A measure of central tendency. |

Meta-Analysis | A statistical method that researchers use to interpret psychological literature. |

Mode | The most common score in a dataset. A measure of central tendency. |

Naturalistic Observation | Research by watching behavior in real-world settings, no manipulation from researcher. |

Operational Definition | The definition of what the researcher is measuring. |

Placebo Effect | Expecting improves leading to improvement. |

Prefrontal Lobotomy | A surgical procedure that cuts the fibers connecting the frontal lobes from the thalamus. |

Random Assignment | Randomly sorting participants into groups. |

Random Selection | Ensuring every person in a population has an equal chance of being chosen for a study. |

Range | The difference between the highest and lowest scores. A measure of variability. |

Reliability | The consistency of measurement. |

Response Sets | The tendency of participants to change their response to questionnaires. |

Scatterplot | Grouping points on a graph in which each dot represents someone's data. |

Standard Deviation | Addresses how far each data point is from the mean. A measure of variability. |

Statistics | Using math to describe and analyze data. |

Validity | How well a measure assesses what its designed to measure. |

Variability | The measure of how loosely or tightly grouped scores are. |

Within-Subject Design | Each participant acts as their own control in an experiment. |