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Psych Ex 2 Ch 8


Memory Persistence of learning over time through encoding, storage, and retrieval of info
Encode Process of getting info into memory system
Store Process of retaining encoded info over time
Retrieve Process of getting info out of memory storage
Retention measures Recall, recognition, relearning
Recall Person must retrieve info learned earlier
Recognition Identifies items previously learned
Relearning Assesses amount of time saved when learning material again
Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin Proposed a three stage model of memory forming
Three stage model Record info as sensory memory, process info into short term and encode it through rehearsal, move info into long term
Sensory memory Immediate/brief recording of sensory info
Short term memory Briefly activated memory of few items that is later stored or forgotten
Long term memory Relatively permanent/limitless active of memory system
Working memory Newer form of short term, conscious/active processing of incoming sensory info and retrieved from long term memory
Who thought of working memory? Alan Baddely
Semantic memory Explicit memory of facts/general knowledge
Episodic memory Explicit memory of personally experienced events (autobiographically memory)
Explicit memory Declarative memory -Facts/experiences that one can consciously know and declare
What does explicit memory go through? Hippocampus, frontal lobes for processing
Implicit memory Non-declarative memory -involved retention of learned skills or classically conditioned associations independent of conscious recollection -Include procedural memory for automatic skills/classical conditioning among stimuli
How is implicit memory encoded? Through automatic processing without awareness
How is explicit memory encoded? Through conscious effortful processing
Procedural memory and priming are part of what memory? Implicit
Procedural memory Body and motor memory - learn motor programs that don't need conscious retrieval
Priming Based on classical conditioning -unconscious activation of association and memory
Ionic memory Momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli -photographic/picure image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
Echoic memory Momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli -If attention is elsewhere, the words can still be revealed within 3 to 4 seconds
Effortful processing strategies Chunking, mnemonics, hierarchies
Chunking Organizing items into familiar/manageable units -occurs automatically
Mnemonics Memory aids (especially techniques that use vivid imagery or organization) -help with retaining larger pieces of info
Hierarchies Concepts divided into narrower concepts -helps retrieve info efficiently
Hippocampus In limbic system // matures over time -registers and temporarily holds elements of explicit memories before moving them into other long lasting regions
What is the hippocampus required for? Learning new info
What happens if the hippocampus is damaged? Anterograde amnesia
Patient HM Henry Gustav Molaison had bilateral media temporal lobectomy. 2/3 surgically resected of his hippocampus and other areas to cure epilepsy
What were the findings of patient HM? Established fundamental principle that memory is a distinct cerebral function -identified that temporal lobe is important for memory
Anterograde amnesia Cannot make new memories -impairing
Retrograde amnesia Cannot remember previously encoded memories
Amygdala Stress provokes amygdala to initiate memory trade -emotion can be attended to the memory
Flashbulb memory Clear memory of an emotionally significant moment/event
What are flashbulb memories associated with? Amygdala
Priming Activation (unconsciously) of certain associations predisposing ones perception, memory, and response
State dependent memory What we learn in a state may be better recalled when in that state
Mood congruent Tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with ones good or bad mood
What is mood congruent associated with? State dependent memory
Context dependent memory putting oneself back into context may help with memory retrieval
Encoding specificity principle Cues/context specific to memory will be most effective during recall
What is the encoding specificity principle associated with? Context dependent memory
What is forgetting due to? Encoding failure, storage delay, retrieval failure
Encoding failure Won't remember the info -affected by age -requires selective/sustained attention to enter short term memory
What does impaired attention in encoding failure lead to? Limits absolute amount of material that can be consolidated/retrieved
Storage decay After encoding, things can still be forgotten (initially rapid) -physical changes in brain occur as memory forms (memory trace)
Retrieval failure Contribute to the occasional memory failures in adults -may stem from interference and motivated forgetting
Motivated forgetting relates to...? Painful memories
Interference relates to...? Proactive/retroactive intereference
Proactive interference Forward acting -prior learning disrupts recall of new info
Retroactive interference Backward acting -new learning disrupts recall of older info
Misinformation effect Occurs when a memory has been corrupted by misleading info -can influence later attitudes and behaviors
Eyewitness testimony Children's memories can easily be melded
Who's research backed eyewitness testimony? Ceci/Bruck
Reconsolidation Process in which previously stored memories when retrieved are potentially altered before being stored again
Created by: MikalahQuillen
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