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Geo Ch 4

Human World

number of deaths per thousand, per year DEATH RATE
number of births per year,per thousand birth rate
study of population demography
birthrate minus death rate (growth rate) natural increase
death rate minus birthrate=0 0 population growth
pattern of human settlement population distribution
city and the surrounding urbanized area metroplitan area
average number of people living on a square mile of square kilometer (total population/total land) population density
movement of people from place to place migration
moving from country of birth emigrate
moving to a country immigrate
people who flee to escape persecution/disaster refugee
the way of life of a group of people who share similar beliefs and customs, including religion, language, history , art, government, and economy culture
strongest unifying force in a culture language
local form of a language that differs form the main language dialect
scientists who study language linguists
hinduism, buddhism, judaism, christianity, islam five major religions
most important group family
people ranked according to ancestry, wealth, and education social classes
people who share a common language, history and place of origin ethnic group
maintaions order, provides protection, supplies services government
how people produce, obtain, use , and sell goods and services economy
how geographers divide earth into regions by common characteristics culture regions
spreading new knowledge and skills from one culture to another (movement) cultural diffusion
herders and hunters who had no fixed home, searching for food, water, and grazing land nomads
shift from gathering food to producing food agricultural revolution
highly organized city-based societies with advanced knowledge of farming, trade, government, art, science civilizations
people leave one land to live in another permanent migration
countries use powerdriven machines and factories to mass-produce goods; left farms for cities (1700's/1800's) industrial revolution
computers link cultures more closely than ever before(end of 1900's) information revolution
freedom from outside control sovereignty
key powers to national or central government unitary system
power is divided between national and state or provincial government federal system
a loose union of independent states confederation
power and authority with one person autocracy
king or queen; can be absolute or constitutional monarchy
small group holds power oligarchy
leaders rule with the consent of the people democracy
people decide on issues(none today) direct democracy
voters elect all major officials(u.s.) republic
habit and custom determine rules traditional economy
based of free enterprise;individuals and private groups make decisions market economy
people have right to make profit with little government interference free enterprise
free enterprise capitalism
government supports and regulates free enterprise(u.s. today) mixed economy
government owns or direct means of production and control distribution of goods command economy
strict government control of entire society,including economy communism
free enterprise along with govenment-run activites socialism
elements that are not made by people but are used by them for food, fuel, etc natural resources
cannot be used up or can be replaced naturally renewable resources
cannot be replaced nonrenwable resources
taking resources from earth (farming, mining, forestry) primary sector
use raw materials to produce goods (automobiles, electric power, pottery) secondary sector
provide services (doctors, teachers, lawyers,retail) tertiary sector
info. processing, management, distribution (research, IT) quarternary sector
a country with much technology and manufacturing; high standard of living developed countries
poor standard of living (africa, asia, latin america) developing countries
can transform developing country to developed industrialization
militant groups use violence to create fear in population terrorism
does business in many parts of world; headquarters in developed country, labor in developing country multinational company
tax on imported goods tariff
limit number of items from a particular country quota
banning trade embargo
the removal of trade barriers free trade
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GATT