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Pscyhology B5

Chapter 3, 4 and 5

TermDefinition
Variability The amount of spread or dispersion in a set of scores.
Range The highest minus the lowest score. This is a very general estimate.
Exclusive Range The highest score minus the lowest score
Inclusive Range The highest score minus the lowest score plus 1.
Standard Deviation The average amount of variability in a set of scores, or a measure of the average distance from the mean. This is the most common measure of variability, but it is sensitive to extreme scores.
Variance The square of the standard deviation. This measure is much more difficult to interpret than the standard deviation, which is why it is used much less often.
Mean Deviation The sum of the absolute value of the deviations form the mean divided by the number of scores. This calculation differs from that of the standard deviation.
Unbiased estimate An estimate of a population parameter in which 1 is subtracted from n. It is considered to be a more conservative estimate than the biased estimate.
Frequency Distribution A method of tallying and representing how often certain scores occur. Frequency distributions generally group scores into class intervals or ranges of numbers.
Class Interval A range of numbers, chosen by the researcher, to be used in charts/graphs.
Histogram A graphical representation of a frequency distribution in which the frequencies are represented by bars.
Midpoint The central point of a class interval.
Frequency Polygon A continuous line that represents a frequency distribution
Cumulative Frequency Distribution A frequency distribution that shows frequencies for class intervals along with the cumulative frequency for each.
Otive Another name for a cumulative frequency polygon.
Column charts A type of chart in which categories are organized horizontally on the x-axis and values are shown vertically on the y-axis. This type of chart is used to compare the frequencies of different categories with one another.
Bar charts A type of chart in which categories are organized vertically on the y-axis and values are shown horizontally on the x-axis in the form of separate, separated bars.
Line Chart A type of chart in which categories are organized vertically on the y axis and values are shown horizontally on the x-axis. These values are connected by one or more lines.
Pie Chart A type of chart that illustrates the proportions of responses to another item as a series of wedges in a circle.
Correlation coefficient A numerical index that reflects the relationship between two variables.
Pearson Product-moment correlation A specific type of correlation coefficient developed by Karl Pearson. It is specifically suited to determining the correlation between two continuous variables.
Direct Correlation A positive correlation such that the values of both variables change in the same direction.
Indirect correlation a negative correlation such that the values of the two variables move in opposite directions.
Scatterplot or scattergram a plot of matched data points. This type of chart is used to illustrate a correlation between two variables.
Linear Correlation A correlation that is best expressed as a straight line.
Curvilinear Relationship A situation in which the correlation between two variables begins as a direct correlation and then becomes an indirect correlation, or vice versa. It can be detected by examining the scatterplot.
Coefficient of determination The amount of variance accounted for in a relationship between two variables.
Coefficient of alienation the amount of unexplained variance in a relationship between two variables. It is equal to 1 minus the coefficient of determination.
Phi Coefficient A measure used to estimate the correlation between one nominal and one interval variable.
Spearman rank coefficient A measure used to estimate the correlation between two ordinal variables.
Created by: crystalrene2019
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