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RTE 2712 Week 3

RTE 2712 Week 3 Lymph and Endoc systems

The lymphatic system is composed of Lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, and the spleen
Anatomically, lymph vessels resemble Veins
The two collecting ducts that drain the lymphatic trunks are the Thoracic duct and right lymphatic duct
Most of the lymph returns to the venous circulation by way of the Thoracic duct
____ are large lymphatic nodules that are located in the walls of the pharynx Tonsisls
Lymphatic organs are different from lymphatic tissues in that lymphatic organs Are separated from surrounding tissues by a fibrous capsule and lymphatic tissues are not.
The spleen is the largest lymphatic organ,is located in the LUQ, contains nodules similar to other lymphatic nodules, contains lymphocytes
The white pulp of the spleen is composed primarily of Lymphocytes
The body's nonspecific defenses include Complement, interferon, inflammation, and skin
The primary function of the lymphatic system is The production, maintenance, and distribution of lymphocytes
Immunological surveillance involves which of the following cells Natural killer cells (NK cells)
Interferons may be described as Antiviral substances, coordinators of local defense activities, products of activated lymphocytes and macrophages, an example of cytokines
An inflammatory response is triggered when mast cells release histamine, serotonin, and heparin
Immunity that results from antibodies that pass the placenta from the mother to fetus is called passive natural
Cells that help to regulate the immune response are Helper T cells
T cells are responsible for Cellular immunity
Stem cells that will form T cells are modified in the Thymus
In order for a lymphocyte to respond to an antigen, the antigen must bind to specific receptors on the lymphocyte membrane
The role of the spleen is slightly different than other lymph organs because it also filters blood
The cells responsible for humoral immunity are the B cells
Defense mechanisms that either prevent or slow the entry of infectious organisms, or attack them if they do gain entry Non specific
Immunity is the ability to resist infection and disease through the activation of Specific defense
The cells that are vital to the body's ability to resist or overcome infection and disease are called Lymphocytes
The major components of the lymphoid system include Lymphatic vessels, lymph, lymphoid organs
Lymphoid organs found in the lymphoid system include The spleen, the thymus, and lymph nodes
The lymphoid system Helps maintain normal blood volume, fights infection, eliminates variations in composition of interstitial fluid
Anatomically, lymph vessels resemble Veins
Most of the lymph returns to the venous circulation by the way of the Thoracic ducts
The structures in the lymphoid system that act as a way station for cancer cells are the Lymph nodes
The three class of lymphocytes found in the blood are T cells, B cells, and NK cells
Lymphocytes that assist in the regulation and coordination of the immune response are Helper T cells and suppressor T cells
Normal lymphocyte populations are maintained through lymphopoiesis in the Bone marrow and thymus
The type of lymphocytes that produce antibodies are B cells
Cytotoxic T cells are the primary providers of Cell-mediated immunity
Hemocytoblasts in the bone marrow produce lymphoid stem cells that generate T cells, NK cells, B cells
The body's nonspecific defenses that are present at birth include Physical barriers, phagocyte cells, immunological surveillance, fever, interferons, complement, and inflammation
NK cells sensitive to the presence of abnormal cell membranes are primarily involved in immunological surveillance
The proteins that interfere with replication of viruses is(are) Interferon
The nonspecific defense that breaks down cell wall, attracts phagocytes, and stimulates inflammation is the complement system
Circulating proteins that reset thermostat in the hypothalamus, causing a rise in body temp, are called pyrogens
Nonspecific defense strategies Physical barrier, phagocytes, immunological surveillance, Interferons, Complement sys., Inflammation, and fever
Prevent approach of and deny access to pathogens Physical barrier (skin)
Remove debris and pathogens Phagocytes
Destroys abnormal cells Immunological surveillance
Increase resistance of cells to viral infection; slow the spread of disease Interferons
Attacks and breaks down cell walls; attracts phagocytes; stimulates inflammation Complement systems
Has multiple effects Inflammation response (Blood flow increased, phagocytes activated, and clotting)
Mobilizes defense; accelerated repairs; inhibits pathogens Fever (rises above 37.2^C)
The four general properties of specific defenses include Specificity, versatility, memory, and tolerance
The two major ways the body carries out the immune response are direct attack by T cells and circulating antibodies
A specific defense mechanism is always activated by An antigen
The first line of cellular defense against pathogens is phagocytes
Immunity resulting from natural exposure to an antigen in the environment is called Active immunity
Immunity that results from the transfer of antibodies to an individual from some other source is called passive immunity
The basic principle behind vaccination to prevent disease involves induced active immunity
When an antigen appears, the immune response begins with the activation of specific T cells and B cells
When the immune recognition system malfunctions, activated B cells begin to manufacture antibodies against other cells and tissues
T cells are involved with ______ and ____ attack pathogens cell-mediated responses; directly
B cells are involved with ___ and create a chemical attack on ____ humoral responses; antigens
The cells responsible for the production of circulating antibodies are plasma cells
T cell activation leads to the formation of cytotxic T cells and memory T cells that provide cell-mediated immunity
Destruction of target cells by the local release of cytokines, lymphotoxins, or perforin Cytotoxic T cells
Suppressor T cells act to limit the degree of memory in memory T cells
A defense against abnormal cells and pathogens inside living cells is provided by T cells
An active antibody is shaped like a(n) Y
The most important antibody action(s) in the body is(are) activation of the complement systems
The specificity of an antibody is determined by the variable segments of light and heavy chains
The binding of an antigen to an antibody can result in neutralization of the antigen, agglutination or precipitation, complement activation
The antigenic determinant site is that portion of the antigen's exposed surface where the antibody attacks
In order for an antigenic molecule to be a complete antigen, it must be immunogenic and reactive
Antibody secretion by memory B cells is the secondary response to antigen exposure
The reason the primary response takes time to develop is that memory B cells must differentiate into plasma cells
the antibodies produced by active plasma cells bind to the target antigen to destroy it
The hormones released by synthesizing cells that make neighboring cells resistant to viral infection, thereby slowing the spread of the virus, are called Interferons
The ability to demonstrate immune response upon exposure to antigen is called immunological competence
Misguided antibodies that function against normal body cells and tissues are called autoantibodies
Inappropriate or excessive immune response to antigens are allergies
When an immune response mistakenly targets normal body cells and tissues, the result is an autoimmune disorder
When the immune system fails to develop normally or the immune response is blocked in some way, the condition is called an immunodeficiency disease
Monocytes Macrophages
Microphages neutrrophils and eosinopils
Mast cells immunological surveillance
acquired immunity active and passive
specific immunity innate and acquired
B cells humoral immunity
passive immunity transfer antibodies
cytotoxic T cells cellular immunity
diapedesis migration of phagocytes
NK cells immunological surveillance
humoral immunity secretion of antibodies
Lymphoma lymphoid system cancer
complement system of circulating proteins
microphages neutrophils, eosinophils
macrophages monocytes
microglia CNS macrophages
interferon cytokine
pyrogens Induce fever
innate immunity present at birth
active immunity exposure to antigen
passive immunity transfers of antibodies
apoptosis genetically programmed cell death
Lymphocytes responsible for providing cell-mediated immunity are called cytotoxic T cells
B cells are responsible for antibody-mediated immunity
Lymphoid stem cells that can form all types of lymphocytes occur in the bone marrow
Phagocytes move through the capillary walls by squeezing between adjacent endothelial cells, a process known as diapedesis
Perforins are destructive proteins associated with the activity of T cells
Complement activation Stimulates inflammation, attract phagocytes, and enhances phagocytosis
Inflammation Aids in temporary repair at an injury site, slows the spread of pathogens, and facilitates permanent repair
Memory B cells Respond to subsequent infections that involve the same antigen
T cell and B cells can be activated only by exposure to a specific antigen at a specific site on a cell membrane
Lymph flows along a network of lymphatics that originates in the Lymphatic capillaries
Three classes of lymphocytes T cells, B cells, and NK cells
Thymus dependent T cells
Bone marrow-derived B cells
Attack foreign cells or body cells infected by viruses and provide cell-mediated immunity Cytotoxic T cells
Regulate and coordinate the immune response Regulatory T cells
Regulatory T cells Helper T cells and suppressor T cells
B cells can differentiate into plasma cells
Antibodies in body fluids are also called immunglobulins
B cells are responsible for antibody mediated immunity or humoral immunity
What cells provide a monitoring service called immunological surveillance NK cells
Attack foreign cells, normal cells infected with viruses and cancer cells NK Cells
Involves the bone marrow, thymus, and peripheral lymphoid tissues Lymphopoiesis
Distributed in areas especially vulnerable to invasion by pathogens Lymphoid tissues and organs
Encapsulated masses of lymphoid tissue containing lymphocytes. Lymph nodes
The body's two major defense systems Nonspecific defense and specific defense
Do not discriminate between one threat and another Nonspecific defense
Protect against particular threats Specific
Small proteins released by virus-infected cells, trigger the production of antiviral proteins that interfere with replication inside other cells Interferons
Represents a coordinated nonspecific response to tissue injury Inflammation
Can inhibit pathogens and accelerate metabolic processes Fever
Specific defenses are provided by T cells and B cells
Provide cell mediated immunity T cells
provide antibody mediated immunity B cells
genetically determined and present at birth innate immunity
Two types of acquired immunity Active immunity and passive immunity
appears following exposure to an antigen active immunity
produced by the transfer of antibodies from another source Passive immunity
Lymphocytes provide specific immunity, which has four general characteristics Specificity, versatility, memory, and tolerance
Occurs because receptors on T cell and B cell membranes can bind only to specific antigens Specificity
Immune system can respond to any of the thousands of antigens it encounters because of Versatility
Enable the immune system to "remember" previously encountered antigens Memory cells
The ability of the immune system to ignore some antigens, such as normal body cells Tolerance
Cell mediated immunity results from the activation of Cytotoxic T cells
Depress the response of B cells and other T cells Suppressor T cells
Secrete cytokines that help coordinate specific and nonspecific defenses and regulate cellular and humoral immunity Helper T cells
Divides and produces plasma cells and memory B cells An activated B cell
Classes of Antibodies: Responsible for defense against many viruses, bacteria and bacterial toxins IgG
Classes of Antibodies: Anti-A and anti-B forms responsible for cross-reactions between incompatible blood types IgM
Classes of Antibodies: Attacks pathogens before they enter the body tissue IgA
Largest class of antibodies (80%), also cross the placenta and provide passive immunity to fetus IgG
First antibody type secreted following initial exposure to antigen IgM
Found in glandular secretions (tears, mucus) IgA
Develop when the immune response mistakenly targets normal body cells and tissues Autoimmune disorders
The immune system does not develop normally or the immune response is somehow blocked immunodeficiency disease
inappropriate or excessive immune response to allergens Allergies
Four types of allergies immediate hypersensitivity, cytotoxic reactions, immune complex disorders, and delayed Hypersensitivity
Lymph nodes Produce antibodies from specialized T cells, and act as a "check station" for cancer cells
In general, lymphocytes Spend little time in the blood, have a relatively long life span, are not evenly distributed in the lymphatic tissues
The region of a lymph node through which blood vessels enter and exit is called the Hilum
Interferons may be described as Coordinators of local defense activities, antiviral substances, products of activated lymphocytes and macrophages, an example of cytokines
The first line of cellular defense against pathogens is Phagocytes
All of the various macrophages are derived from Monocytes
The cells that are actively involved in immunological surveillance are the NK cells
A foreign invader that may cause disease is called a(n) Pathogen
The immunoglobulins that can cross the placenta are the IgG
Innunoglobulins that are the largest class and are mainly responsible for resistance against viruses, bacteria and bacterial toxins are IgG
Innunoglobulins that are the first antibodies to be produced in response to infection are IgM
Innunoglobulins that are primarily found in glandular secretions are IgA
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a membrane protein that can recognize foreign antigens
The chemical mediator responsible for killing tumor cells, stimulating T cell activity, and inhibiting parasites and viruses are termed Tumor necrosis factors
B cells are primarily activated by the activities of Helper T cells
Lymphatic vessels that exit the lymph node are called Efferent lymphatic vessels
Excessive immune responses to antigens are Allergies
Cytotoxic T cells destroy their target cells by releasing substance that alter Cell membranes
Which of the following is an autoimmune disease rheumatoid arthritis
A bacterial infection in the foot would most likely affect lymph nodes in which of the following regions inguinal
The endocrine system Produces effects that can last for hours, days,etc., releases hormones that alter the metabolic activities of many different tissues and organs simultaneously, releases chemicals into the bloodstream for distribution throughout the body
All hormones are Organic compounds
Peptide hormones Are composed by amino acids
Steroid hormones Are lipids and are structurally similar to cholesterol
When protein or peptide hormone binds to receptors on the surface of a cell A second messenger appears in the cytoplasm
Steroid hormones Bind to intracellular receptors
Hormone concentration levels are most commonly controlled by negative feedback
An important second messenger in hormonal action is cAMP
Which of the following is released by axon ending in the posterior pituitary antidiuretic hormone
The most complex endocrine responses involve the hypothalamus
Endocrine organs can be controlled by Direct neural stimulation, releasing hormones from the hypothalamus, hormones from other endocrine glands
Hormones that control the function of the anterior pituitary gland are released from the Hypothalamus
The hypothalamus controls the secretion of the anterior pituitary by way of releasing and inhibiting hormones
Which of the following primarily targets the gonads follicle-stimulating hormone
The release of parathyroid hormone is controlled by Blood calcium levels
Parathyroid glands produce a hormone that increase the level of calcium ions in the blood
Cells of the adrenal cortex produce aldosterone
The beta cells of the pancreas produce insulin
Hormone-producing cells of the testes produce Inhibin and testosterone
The adrenal medulla produces epinephrine
The hormone oxytocin promotes uterine contractions and is responsible for milk production in the mammary glands
Thyroid hormone contains the mineral iodine
Which of the following has both endocrine and exocrine functions pancreas
The pituitary hormone that stimulates milk production by the mammary glands is PRL
The pituitary hormone that stimulates melanocytes to produce melanin is MSH
Increased levels of the hormone ___ will lead to increased levels of calcium ions in the blood parathyroid hormone
The pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar levels to rise Glucagon
Increased numbers of red blood cells would result from increase in the hormone erythropoietin
Where are the hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary made hypothalamus
Hormones from which of the following glands are responsible for the calorigenic effect Thyroid gland
Created by: Joker71