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Cardio Pulm

ANS

QuestionAnswer
The ANS is part of the CNS or PNS? PNS
parasympathetic or sympathetic? contracts pupils, stimulates salivation, contracts bronchi Parasympathetic
parasympathetic or sympathetic? slows HR, stimulates digestive activity, stimulates gallbladder, contracts bladder parasympathetic
parasympathetic or sympathetic? dilates pupils, inhibits salivation, relaxes bronchi sympathetic
parasympathetic or sympathetic? accelerates HR, inhibits digestive activity, stimulates glucose release from liver, relaxes bladder sympathetic
"Fight or flight" is to __________, as "rest and digest" is to __________. sympathetic, parasympathetic
Cholinergic receptors are receptive to what? Adrenergic receptors are receptive to what? ACh, catecholamines(NE and E)
Sympathetic ganglion are closer to the spinal cord or the organ of innervation? SC
The preganglionic fibers of the of the SNS are long or short? short...the postganglionic are longer and travel from the ganglion to the organ of destination
The preganglionic fibers of the SNS run from where to where? intermediolateral horn of the thoracic and upper lumbar spinal cord(T1-L2) to the sympathetic chain ganglia
What does the adrenal medullae do and what is it a part of? part of the SNS, secrets epinephrine and norepinephrine
Are the preganglionic fibers of the PSNS long or short? long...the ganglion is located closer to the effector organ so the postganglionic fibers are shorter then the pre.
What cranial nerves are associated with the PSNS? CN III, VII, IX, X
Arterial pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate are controlled by what part of the CNS? brain stem
Control of body temp, GI activity, and salivation are controlled by what part of the CNS? hypothalamus
ACh produces what kind of effects on the body? (sympathetic or parasympathetic). Because of this anticholinergic drugs cause what kind of effects? parasympathetic. causes dry mouth, dry eyes, urinary retention
How many adrenergic receptors are there and what do they respond to? there 4(alpha 1&2, Beta 1&2), they respond to E & NE.
Which adrenergic receptor is responsible for vasoconstriction of the arterioles in the skin and viscera, and intestinal relaxation? alpha 1
Which adrenergic receptor modulates the release of NE from presynaptic terminals, and decreases sympathetic outflow from the brain to decrease HR and vasodilation Alpha 2
Which adrenergic receptor causes increased HR and contractility? Beta 1
Which adrenergic receptor causes vasodilation of skeletal muscle and liver, intestinal relaxation, bronchodilation, and increased metabolic rate? Beta 2
What is the predominant effect of sympathetic stimulation on blood vessels? vasoconstriction
SNS can can constrict or dilate blood vessels by ↑ or ↓ its what? alpha adrenergic stimulation
Beta antagonists are used to treat what? HTN, angina, cardiac arrhythmias, and post MI
Alpha antagonists are used to treat what? HTN, BPH
non-selective adrenergic antagonists are used to treat what? HTN, and cardiac arrhythmias
Alpha 1 agonists are used to treat what? hypotension, nasal congestion, supraventricular tachycardia
Alpha 2 agonists are used to treat what? HTN spasticity
What is the suffix for alpha blockers? -zosin
What is the suffix for ACE inhibitors? -pril
What is the suffix for beta blockers? -olol
What is the suffix for calcium channel blockers? -pine
Statins refer to what kind of drugs? lipid lowering drugs
Why is it important to use RPE for pts on beta blockers? because beta blockers prevent exercise HR from increasing more than 20-30 bpm above resting HR
What are ACE inhibitors used to treat and what do they do? HTN and heart failure. They prevent constriction of blood vessels and retention of sodium and fluid, improve sympathetic HR response during exercise in early phase of MI to prevent heart failure
What are beta-blockers used for and how do they work? Decreases blood pressure, dysryhthmias, and angina. They relax the blood vessles of the heart muscle by blocking sympathetic conduction at beta-receptors on the SA node and myocardial cells
What are calcium channel blockers used for and how do they work? used to lower blood pressure and suppress some arrhythmias. they dilate the coronary arteries to get this done.
The following are s/s of what? angina, chest discomfort, vomiting, SOB, prolonged p wave on ECG. MI
The following are s/s of what? Distal LE edema, L ventricular hypertrophy, fatigue, frequent urination especially at night CHF
The following are s/s of what? Chronic wet cough, increased blood pressure in lungs, SOB, wheezing. Cor Pulmonale
How do you document angina? What variables would you use? use the rate pressure product (HRxSBP)/ time, speed, grade, RPE
Created by: txst spr 2010
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