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Chapter 2

1. naturalistic observation research method in which the psychologist observes the subject in a natural setting without interfering.
2. case study research method that involves an intensive investigation of one or more participants.
3. longitudinal study research method in which data are collected about a group of participants over a number of years to assess how certain characteristics change or remain the same during development.
4. cross-sectional study research method in which data are collected from groups of participants of different ages and compared so that conclusions can be drawn about differences due to age.
5. Correlation the measure of a relationship between two variables or sets of data.
6. Variable any factor that is capable of change.
7. experimental group experimental group- the group to which an independent variable is applied.
8. control group the group that is treated in the same way as the experimental group except that the experimental treatment (the independent variable) is not applied.
9. self-fulfilling prophecy a situation in which a researcher’s expectations influence that person’s own behavior, and thereby influence the participant’s behavior.
10. single-blind experiment an experiment in which the participants are unaware of who received the treatment.
11. Double-blind experiment an experiment in which neither the experimenter nor the participants know which participants received which treatment.
12.placebo effect a change in a participant’s illness or behavior that results from a belief that the treatment will have an effect rather than from the actual treatment.
13. Descriptive statistics The listing and summarizing of data in a practical, efficient way.
14. frequency distribution an arrangement of data that indicates how often a particular score or observation occurs.
15. normal curve a graph of frequency distribution shaped like a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve; a graph of normally distributed data.
16.central tendency a number that describes something about the “average” score of a distribution variance.
17. standard deviation a measure of variability that describes an average distance of every score from the mean.
18. Variance a measure of variability that is the mean of the squares of the deviations from the mean of the set of data.
19. correlation coefficient describes the direction and strength of the relationship between two sets of variables.
20. inferential statistics numerical methods used to determine whether research data support a hypothesis or whether results were due to chance.
Created by: maddielansford
Popular Psychology sets




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