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# Psychology

### Chapter 2

Term | Definition |
---|---|

1. naturalistic observation | research method in which the psychologist observes the subject in a natural setting without interfering. |

2. case study | research method that involves an intensive investigation of one or more participants. |

3. longitudinal study | research method in which data are collected about a group of participants over a number of years to assess how certain characteristics change or remain the same during development. |

4. cross-sectional study | research method in which data are collected from groups of participants of different ages and compared so that conclusions can be drawn about differences due to age. |

5. Correlation | the measure of a relationship between two variables or sets of data. |

6. Variable | any factor that is capable of change. |

7. experimental group | experimental group- the group to which an independent variable is applied. |

8. control group | the group that is treated in the same way as the experimental group except that the experimental treatment (the independent variable) is not applied. |

9. self-fulfilling prophecy | a situation in which a researcher’s expectations influence that person’s own behavior, and thereby influence the participant’s behavior. |

10. single-blind experiment | an experiment in which the participants are unaware of who received the treatment. |

11. Double-blind experiment | an experiment in which neither the experimenter nor the participants know which participants received which treatment. |

12.placebo effect | a change in a participant’s illness or behavior that results from a belief that the treatment will have an effect rather than from the actual treatment. |

13. Descriptive statistics | The listing and summarizing of data in a practical, efficient way. |

14. frequency distribution | an arrangement of data that indicates how often a particular score or observation occurs. |

15. normal curve | a graph of frequency distribution shaped like a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve; a graph of normally distributed data. |

16.central tendency | a number that describes something about the “average” score of a distribution variance. |

17. standard deviation | a measure of variability that describes an average distance of every score from the mean. |

18. Variance | a measure of variability that is the mean of the squares of the deviations from the mean of the set of data. |

19. correlation coefficient | describes the direction and strength of the relationship between two sets of variables. |

20. inferential statistics | numerical methods used to determine whether research data support a hypothesis or whether results were due to chance. |