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# Apologia Science

### Physical Science Final reveiw module 8-16

Updraft A current of rising air
Insulator A substance that does not conduct electricity very well
Reference point A point against which position is measured
Vector quantity A physical measurement that contains directional information
Scalar quantity A physical measurement that does not contain directional information
Acceleration The time rate of change of an object's velocity
Free fall The motion of an object when it is falling solely under the influence of gravity
Newtons's First Law An object in motion(or at rest)will tend to stay in motion(or at rest)until it is acted upon by an outside force
Inertia The tendency of an object to resist changes in its velocity
Friction A force that opposes motion,resulting from the contact of two surfaces
Newton's Second Law When an object is acted on by one or more outside forces,the total force is equal to the mass of the object times the resulting acceleration
Kinetic friction Friction that opposes motion once the motion has already started
Static friction Friction that opposes the initiation of motion
Newton's Third Law For every action,there is an equal and opposite reaction
Centripetal force The force necessary to make an object move in a circle.It is directed perpendicular to the velocity of the object,which means it points toward the center of the circle
Photon A small "package" of light that acts like a particle
Charging by conduction Charging an object by allowing it to come into contact with an object that already has an electrical charge
Charging by induction Charging an object without direct contact between the object and a charge
Electrical current The amount of charge that travels past a fixed point in an electric circuit each second
Conventional current Current that flows from the positive side of the battery to the negative side.This is the way current is drawn in a circuit diagrams, even though it is wrong
Resistance The ability of a material to impede the flow of charge
Open circuit A circuit that does not have a complete connection between the two sides of the power source.As a result,current does not flow
Model A schematic description of a system that accounts for its known properties
Nucleus The center of an atom , containing the protons and neutrons
Atomic number The number of protons in an atom
Mass number The sum of the numbers of neutrons and protons in the nucleus of an atom
Isotopes Atoms with the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons
Element A collection of atoms that all have the same number of protons
Radioactive isotope An atom with a nucleus that is not stable
Half-life The time it takes for half of the original sample of a radioactive isotope to decay
Transverse wave A wave with a direction of propagation that is perpendicular to its direction of oscillation
Longitudinal wave A wave with a direction of propagation that is parallel to its direction of oscillation
Supersonic speed Any speed that is faster than the speed of sound in the substance of interest
Sonic boom The sound produced as a result of an object traveling at or above Mach 1
Pitch An indication of how high or low a sound is, which is primarily determined by the frequency of the sound wave
Electromagnetic wave A transverse wave composed of an oscillating electric field and a magnetic field that oscillates perpendicular to the electric field
The Law of Reflection The angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence
Nuclear fusion The process by which two or more small nuclei fuse to make a bigger nucleus
Nuclear fission The process by which a large nucleus is spilt into smaller nuclei
Critical mass The amount of isotope necessary to sustain a chain reaction
Absolute magnitude The brightness of a star, corrected for distance, on a scale of -8 to +19.The smaller the number,the brighter the star
Apparnet magnitude The brightness of a star as seen in the night sky.The smaller the number,the brighter the star
Light year The distance light could travel along a straight line in one year
Galaxy A large ensemble of stars,all interacting through the gravitational force and orbiting around a common center
Created by: Makenshi