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Respiratory System

The smallest of respiratory branches Bronchiole
This element is the reason we breath Oxygen
The trachea divides into the left and right primary ______ Bronchi
Small muscles of breathing found between the ribs Intercostal muscles
Waste product of respiration Carbon Dioxide
Volume of air that is left in the lungs after forced expiration Residual volume
Breathing in Inspiration
Air travels through the nostrils into this chamber to be warmed and humidified Nasal cavity
Windpipe. Has "C shape" cartilage to help keep it open Trachea
The amount of air that is breathed in and out at any one time Tidal Volume
Brings deoxygenated blood to the lungs from the heart Pulmonary Artery
Each lung has separate sections called _____ Lobes
Each lung is enclosed in a double-walled sac called the _______ Pleura
Breathing out Expiration
The tube at the back of the throat shared by the respiratory and digestive systems Pharynx
Dome shaped muscle involved in breathing Diaphragm
Seen from outside as the "Adam's apple" this structure contains the vocal cords Larynx
Clusters of tiny, thin walled air sacs were gaseous exchange occurs Alveoli
The maximum amount of air that can be moved into and out of the lungs Vital Capacity
In what stage of respiration does the exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood occur? External respiration
Which structure contains the vocal cords? Larynx
What is the name for the windpipe? Trachea
Which of these conditions is an inflammation and infection of the lungs where too much moisture builds up and impairs breathing? Pneumonia
What occurs in the capillaries of the alveoli? Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged
External respiration is the transfer of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the environment and the bloodstream in the lungs. True
Which of these conditions is the collapse of part or all of a lung? Atelectasis
Which of these conditions occurs when the bronchial tubes are inflamed and, as a result, obstructed? Asthma
What supply of oxygen exists in the body at any one time? 4-6 minutes
Emphysema causes SOB
What is ventilation? The physical act of breathing
What is the name of the flap of tissue that prevents food and liquid from entering the air passages during swallowing? Epiglottis
What is the name of the tiny hairs that filter dust and germs out of the air entering the respiratory system? Cilia
Spirometry is one of the most common tests used to diagnose diseases and disorders of the Respiratory system
Which of the following is true of lung cancer? Leading cause of death in men and women
What is the large flat muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity? Diaphragm
What is the purpose of the pleura that surrounds the lungs? Protect from friction
Internal respiration is the transfer of gases between the bloodstream and the cells of the body. True
What occurs when oxygen and carbon dioxide gases are exchanged? Respiration
Peak expiratory flow readings are higher when patients are well; lower when patient's airway is constricted
What part of the body does tuberculosis mainly affect? Lungs
What is oxygenation? Process by which molecules are loaded onto the hemoglobin molecules in the blood stream
What percentage of the air we breathe is made up of oxygen? How much of it does our body use? 21% , 5%
How is the respiratory system divided? two sections: the upper airway and the lower airway
Where the esophagus and the trachea branch off. laryngopharynx
Contains the hard palate and the soft palate. nasopharynx
Small, leaf-like flap of tissue at the bottom of the laryngopharynx. epiglottis
oropharynx Contains the base of the tongue, tonsils, and vallecula.
A completely circular ring of cartilage in the upper airway Cricoid cartilage
Where the trachea splits into two passages Carina
Where is the site of oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange in the lungs? Bronchioles
What separates the two lungs? Mediastinum
Normal respiratory rates range from 12 to 20 breaths/min
4 main vital signs Body Temperature, Pulse rate, Respiratory rate, Blood pressure
difficulty breathing or labored breathing dyspnea
fast respiratory rate (above 20) tachypnea
Slow respiratory rate (below 12) bradypnea
absence of breathing apnea
abbreviation for short of breath SOB
What are they key functions of the Pharynx? warming and humidifying, Passageway, Hearing, protection, speech
What is the function of the oropharynx and where does it lie in the body? The middle part of the throat connects to the oral cavity (mouth). It allows air, food and fluid to pass through.
What are the key tissue types in the pharynx called? • Mucous and submucosa (mucosa associated lymphoid tissue = MALT tissue)- supports fighting infection. • Smooth muscle • Blood and nerve supply
What does smooth muscle do? It gives part of the body tone. If something is toned, it can stay rigid as opposed to floppy. This maintains airway patency, meaning it helps to keep the airway open by maintaining its shape.
What is the role of the thyroid cartilage and what is it made off? it protects and supports the vocal cords. It is made of hyaline cartilage
What are the main functions of the larynx? • Production of sound and speech • Speech Protection of lower airways
What makes up the upper respiratory tract? Anything from the nose to the larynx
What makes up the lower respiratory tract? Anything from the trachea down
What are the main functions of the Trachea? • Support and patency - whatever way you move your head, your airway should remain open • Mucociliary escalator- it is made up of mucus and cilia. It moves the mucus up and out of the lungs by coughing or swallowing. • Cough reflex
Describe the process of a cough No. of particles in the trachea reaches a critical mass which causes an impulse In the vagus nerve. This causes a motor response. Youl take a breath and your vocal cords will close to build up pressure in the trachea. This trigger in the diaphragm will
What is surfactant and where is it created? Created by septal cells. It stops the alveoli drying out and reduces suflace tension, preventing alveolar collapse during expiration
When are the internal intercostals used? The internal intercostals are used when expiration becomes active, as in exercise.
What is elasticity? Elasticity is the ability of the lung to return to its normal shape after each breath.
What is compliance? This is the stretchability of the lungs, i.e. the effort required to inflate the alveoli. '
What is external respiration? the exchange of gases by diffusion between the alveoli and the blood in the alveolar capillaries, across the respiratory membrane.
What is internal respiration? exchange of gases by diffusion between blood in the capillaries and the body cells
Created by: kanthonyeacc
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