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Psych Ch.4

The Developing Person

QuestionAnswer
developmental psychology a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span.
zygote the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo.
embryo the developing human organism from about two weeks after fertilization though the second month.
fetus the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth.
teratogens agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach theembryo orfetus during prenatal development and cause harm.
fetal alcoholsyndrom (FAS) physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions
rooting reflex a baby's tendency, when touched on the cheek, to open the mouth and search for the nipple.
habituation decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner.
maturation biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.
schema a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information.
assimilation interpreting one'snew experience in terms of one's existing schemas.
accommodation adapting one's current understandings(schemas) to incorporate new information.
cognition all the mental activities associated with thinking,knowing,remembering,and communication.
sensorimotor stage in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.
object permanence the awareness that things continue to exisit even when not perceived.
preoperational stage in Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.
conservation the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects.
egocentrism in Piaget's theory, the inability of the preoperational child to take another's point of view.
theory of mind people's ideas about their own and other's mental states-about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict.
autism a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of mind.
concrete operational stage in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 to 11 years of age) during wich children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.
formal operational stage in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract conceptions.
stranger anxiety the fear of strangers the infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age.
attachment an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation.
critical period an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experience produces proper development.
imprinting the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life.
basic trust according to Erik Erickson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers.
self-concept a sense of one's identity and personal worth.
adolescence the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence.
puberty the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing.
primary sex characteristics the body structures that make sexual reproduction possible. (ovaries, testies, and external genitalia)
secondary sex characteristics nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breast and hips, male voice quality, and body hair.
menarche the first menstral period.
identity one's sence of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sence of self by testing and integrrating various roles.
intimacy in Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood.
menopause the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experieces as her ability to reproduce declines.
Alzheimer's disease a progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and, finally, physical functioning.
cross-sectional study a study in which people of different ages are compaired with one another.
longitudinal study research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period.
crystalized intelligence one's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age.
fluid intelligence one's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood.
social clock the culturally oreferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement.
Created by: Ascuba