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Learning 1

Chapter 1

Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavioral potentiality that occurs as a result of reinforced practice (Kimble, 1961)
Learning is (Bullets) relatively permanent behavioral potentiality result of reinforced practice
Intervening variable Learning would be the result of an internal change in the organism. The internal change would be learning.
Behavior change New behavior is not a result of learning but learning itself. No internal change is necessary to account for learning.
Instinct not learned, un-modifiable, complex, Occur in virtually all of a species under the correct circumstances
Types of learning Classical, Instrumental , Observational (Not real)
Classical learning aka Pavlovian, Respondent
Instrumental learning aka Operant
Epistomology How we know what we know
5 approaches to acquiring knowledge Tenacity, Intuition, Authority, Rationalism, Empiricism
Tenacity Knowledge based on superstition or habit, might be based in fact but might not, high in error, not scientific
Intuition Knowledge based NOT on reasoning or inferring, feeling strongly about something, you might get lucky and be right, high error, not scientific
Authority Knowledge from a highly respected source, reliable to a point, where did they get their information?, medium in error, not scientific
Rationalism Knowledge through reasoning, pure logic, thought experiments, assumes you have all the information, lower in error, not scientific
Empiricism Knowledge through experience, establishes a causal relationship, least error, most scientific
Science is A specific method to be followed in solving problems and acquiring a body of knowledge, logic of inquiry
Assumptions of science Determinism, Empiricism, Parsimony, Scientific manipulation, Philosophic doubt
Determinism The universe is lawful and orderly all phenomenon occur as a result of other events
Behavior is a result of specific conditions
Variables of choice genetics, learning history, current environment
Empiricism Practice of objective observation
Empirical attitude says "Lets look and see"
Aristotle's 3 principles of association Contiguity, Similarity, Contrast
Is the rate of forgetting faster or slower after studying when compared to a week later? Faster
Who uses animal subjects more, behaviorists or cognitive psychologists? Behaviorists
If psychology is going to be a science it needs to focus on what according to Watson? Stimuli and responses
According to Skinner theories in psychology should not include what? Intervening variables
Parsimony Occams razor, simpler ideas are taken over more complex explanations when both equally predict phenomenon
Law of Parsimony A scientist should never hypothesize a complicated explanation unless all of the simple explanations have been experimentally ruled out
Scientific Manipulation factors suspected of having a causal status are systematically controlled and manipulated while the effects are observed
Philosophic doubt Question all facts, we are far form absolute knowledge on anything
Knowledge obtained through science: Is falsifiable (testable), Is based on objective empirical observations, Is systematic, Is publicly verifiable, Predicts subsequent events
What is the purpose of science? Description, Explanation, Prediction, Control
General principles of basic behavioral phenomena... should hold not only across all members of a species but also across many species in accordance with their genetic relatedness
What is the psyche? Mind, thought, brain
What do actions of the psyche produce? Cognitions (thoughts), Behaviors (actions based on cognitions), Emotions
Psychology is most concerned with which, behaviors or cognitions? Behaviors
Created by: Ashley.johns3342
Popular Psychology sets




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