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Nervous System unit

Nervous System 5 chapter test

The autonomic nervous system consists of the: Visceral, sympathetic, and parasympathetic
A neuron that trasmits a nerve impulse toward the CNS is called: afferent
The largest and most numerous types of neuroglia are: astrocyte
The part of the nervous system that transmits impulses from CNS to skeletal muscle: efferent, or Somatic nervous system
The myelin sheat is formed by: oigodendrocytes and schwann cells
Nissl bodies are comparable to: ribosomes
A neuron that has only one axon but several dendrites is: multipolar
A reflex arc: if a three-nueron arc, contains afferent neuron, interneuron, efferent neuron
A reflex arc: can be a two-neuron arc, containing afferent and efferent neuron
A reflex arc is a signal conduction route from receptors to CNS to effectors
Multipolar neurons have: multiple dendrites and one axon
Fascicles are held together by a connective tissue layer called: perineurium
Gray matter in the brain and spinal cord consists primarily of: cell bodies and unmyelinated fibers
A synaptic knob would be located on: terminal end of axon
Excitatory neurotransmitters are most likely to: conduct impulses
When current leaps across an insulating myelin sheat from node to node, the type of impluse conduction is called: saltitory conduction
What are the main chemical classes of neurotransmitters: acetycholine, amine, amino acids, other small molecules
Serotonin is an example of an: amine, monoamie
Neurotransmitters are released in a synapse and bind to: receptor or binding site
Dendrites conduct impulses: toward the cell body
White matter in the CNS consists of cell bodies and myelinated fibers
Compared to the outside of the neuron, the inside has a negative charge
Dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine are classified as: Catecholamines
Astrocytes attach to: both neurons and blood capillaries
Schwann cells have a similar function in the PN as __ in the CNS. oligodendrocytes
The nervous system can be divided into: CNS and PNS, afferent and efferent, or somatic and autonomic
The other term for cell body is soma or perikaryon
The layer of the meninges that serves as the inner periosteum of the cranial bone: dura mater
The innermost layer of the meninges is: pia mater
Cerebrospinal fluid is found in all except: subdural space
If the ventral nerve root of the spinal nerve were destroyed, a person would lose: movement
IF the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal nerve were destroyed, a person would lose: feeling
The brain has __ major divisions: 6
The brainstem includes: medulla oblongata, midbrains, pons
The pyramids are formed in the: medulla oblongata
The vomiting reflex is mediated by the: medulla oblongata
The part of the brain that receives impulses from the labyrinth of the ear, and thus functions in the maintenance of equilibrium, is the: cerebellum
Functions of the hypothalamus: Integration of many autonomic reflexes, hormona functions, involved in arousal, appetite, thermoregulation
The part of the brain that can influence the rlease of hormones or the endocrine system is: hypothalamus
The part of the cerebrum associated with anger, fear, and sorrow: cerebrum's limbic system
The type of brain waves associated with deep sleep: delta
A person who is awake, alert, and attentive would have a predominance of __ brain waves Beta
A lesion in the cerebral cortex might result in: alzheimers
The falx cerebelli separates: cerebellum and cerebrum
The cerebrospinal fluid resides in the: subarachnoid
The layer of the meninges that adheres to the outer surface of the brain is the: dura mater
The white matter of the cerebellum is called: arborvita
The body's biological clock is controlled by the: pineal gland
The foramen magnum is the structure that divides: the brain and spinal cord?
The central section of the cerebellum is called: vernix
The epidural space is: immediately outside the dura mater but inside the bony coverngs of the spinal cord; is a supporting cushion of fat and other connective tissues; in the brain, is continuous with the periostieum on the inside of the face of the cranial bones.
Parts of the spinal cord: dorsal nerve root, ventral nerve root, spinal nerve, conus medullaris, anterior median fissure, posterior median sulcus, cauda equina, spinal tracts
Cranial nerves wih a "motor" function: oculomotor, trochlear, abducens, accessory, hypoglossal
The cervical plexus: includes C1-C5, innervate neck, upper shoulders, and part of head, and diaphragm.
The sensory cranial nerves include: olfactory, optic, vestibulocochlear
The cranial nerve that arises from both the brain and spinal cord: accessory nerve
Damage to the __ neve could make the diaphragm unable to function: phrenic nerve
Nerves that innervate the floor of the pelvis cavity and some of the suround areas: sacral plexus
The autonomic nervous system functions chiefly in the: organs
Sympathetic responses generally have widespread effects on the body because: 1 sympathetic preganglionic neuron synapses with many postganglionic neurons
Parasympathetic neuron cell bodies are located in: nuclie in brainstem or gray columns of sacral cord
Which part of the vertebral column has one more pair of nerves coming from it than it has vertebra: ??
Functions eye movement: oculmotor, trochlear, abducens
Afferent nerves or fibers are found: ??
The spinal ganglion can be found on the: dorsal root
By age 2 years in a normal infant, the stimulus that caused the Babinski reflex now causes: toes go down
Pain that is perceived as superficial but is actually caused by underlying organ is called: referred
Visceroceptors are located: in organs
The somatic senses enable us to detec sesation such as touch, temperature, pain
Chemoreceptors are most likely to be activity by: carbon dioxide, noxious odors
The receptors responsible for sensing crude and persistent touch: exteeroceptors, Mechanoreceptors
Free nerve endings respond to: pain, itch, tempoerature, tickle, deflection
The olfactory tract carries impulses associatedion with smell
There are _ openings into the middle ear. 4
Primary taste sensations: sweet, sour, bitter, salty, umami
The auditory ossicles include: malleus, incus, stapes
Movement of hair cells I the organ of corti against the __ membrane can stimulate nerve impulse condition. Basilar
The sense organs responsible for static equilibrium are located: vestibule and semicircular canals of ear
The white of the eye is reffered to as the: sclera
The function of the lacrimal apparatus is to: secrete tears
Structure associated with hearing: cochlear duct
A somatic sense: touch, pain, temperature, proprioceptions
proprioceptors can be found in skeletal muscles, joints and tendons
Pain receptors A pain fibers for acute and fast; B pain fibers for chronic or slow
Taste buds can be found mostly on papillae on tongue, but also on lining of mouth and soft palate
___ do not contain taste buds Filiform papillae
Sequence of auditory ossicles: malleus, incus, stapes
Cmpared to nervous system, the regulatory effect of the endocrine system are slow to appear but longer-lasting
General functions of neuroendocrine system: communication, integration, control
Endocrine gland in the neck Thyroid
Nonsteroid hormones oxytocin, calcitonin, glucogon
Hormones may be: steroids, peptides, and glycoproteins
Steroids are able to pass easily through a target cell's plasma membrane because: they are lipid-soluble
The structure ferred to as the master gland is: pituitary
An insufficient amount of somatotropic hormone during the growth years couuld result in: dwarfism
Growth of the ovarian follicle occurs because of FSH
Prolactin affects: milk secretion
The neurohypophysis serves as a storage and release site for oxytocin
Calcitonin: raises blood calcium levels
Parathyroid hromone increases calcium absorption in the intestinesby activating Vitamin D
The hormone that causes ejection of milk into the mammary ducts is: prolactin
Secretion of __ is controlled mainly by the renin-angiotensin mechanism and blood potassium concentration. aldosterone
The adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine
Insulin: lowers blood concentration of glycose, amino acids, and fatty acids; promotes metabolism of glucose by tissue cells, and is produced by beta cells
Hormones produced by the pancreatic islets affect he body's use of: glucose
Human chorionic gonadotroin is produced by the: placenta
Thymosin is a hormone that plays a role in: immunity
Beta receptors bind with: norepinephrine smooth muscle
Created by: lsleicht