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Cognitive Psychology

Week 3

LTM system that is reponsible for storing information for long periods of time
Episodic memory Memory for specific experiences for the past
Semantic memory Memory for facts
Procedural memory Memory for how to carry out physical actions
Memory & aging? There is age-related decline in episodic memory.
Repetition priming Occurs when test stimulus is the same or resembles priming stimulus.
Propaganda effect Participants are more likely to rate statements they have read or heard before as being true, simply because they have been exposted to them.
Classical conditioning Occurs when 2 following stimuli are paired: 1. Neutral stimulus that does not initially result a response 2. Conditioning stimulus that does result in response
Conditioning in real life? Linked to emotions. E.g. meet someone who seems familiar but can't remember how you know him or her.
Prospective memory Improving ability to remember or carry out an action in the ftuure.
Interaction between episodic & semantic memory 1. Knowledge affects experience 2. Make-up of autobiographical memory. Our knowledge (semantic) guides our memory, which in turn influences episodic memory that follow from that experience.
Autobiographical memory Memory for specific experiences from our life, which can include both episodic and semantic components. Interplay semantic & episodic also occurs in autobiographical.
Personal semantic memories Facts associated with personal experiences (e.g. i went to paris in 1999).
Autobiographical vs episodic? Autobiographical relates to you episodic can relate to you but it doesn't stop there; you can relive an experience without it relating to you
Different gradations & qualities of forgetting & remembering Familiarity: seeing something familiar, but not being able to remember any details about specific experiences involving that thing/person (related to semantic memory) Recollection: remembering specific experiences related to thing/person (episodic)
Semanticization of remote memories Loss of episodic detail for memories long-ago events
Explicit/declarative memories Memories we are aware of and can talk about
Implicit Occurs when learning from experience is not accompanied by conscious remembering
Effective studying - Elaborative interrogation - Generate & test - Organization - Take breaks/spacing effect - Avoid illusions of learning
Visual coding Creating a picture in your mind
Auditory coding Play a song in your head
Semantic coding Also happens in STM, but expected to happen in LTM.
Encoding Acquiring information & transferring it into LTM
Retrieval Transfering information from LTM to working memory
Maintenance rehearsal Repeating something over & over again
Elaborative rehearsal Repeating something over & over again but relating the content to something meaningful
Levels of processing theory Memroy depends on depth of processing that an item receives. This theory distinguishes between shallow & deep processing
Shallow processing Involves little attention to meaning
Deep processing Involves close attention, focusing on an item's meaning and relating it to something else
Paired-associate learning List of words which are paired.
Picture-superiority effect Pictures are better remembered than words
Self-reference effect Memory is better if you are asked to relate a word to yourself
Generation effect Generationg material yourself, rather than passively receiving it. This enhances learning and retention.
Retrieval cue A word or stimulus that helps a person remember information stored in memory
Testing effect Enhanced performance due to retrieval practice
Enactment effect Notion that when you *do* something with an object, you are more likely to remember the object later.
Retrieval cues Words or other stimuli that help us remember information stored in our memory
Most successful combination of cues? What, followed by When.
Encoding specificity Encoding information along with its context.
State-dependent learning Learning that is associated with a particular internal state, such as a mood or state of awaareness
Transfer-appropriate processing Retrieval performance was better when retrieval task matched encoding task
Synaptic consolidation Structural change of synapses
Systems consolidation Takes place over months or years, which involves gradual reorganization of neural circuits within the brain.
Standard model of consolidation Proposes that incoming information activates a number of areas in the cortex
Major mechanism of consolidation? Reactivation / cross-cortical consolidation
Retrograde amnesia Loss of memory that occurred before a head/brain injury
Graded amnesia Amnesia is most severe for events that happened just before the injury
Multiple trace model of consolidation Hippocampus is involved in retrieval of episodic memories, even if they originated long ago
Initial selection process theory The initial selection may work via so-called salience tags, which are attached to memories during or shortly after encoding. Salience tag example: emotional value of an object. Main lesson is sleep-dependent memory is an intelligent & selective process.
Reconsolidation Memory retrieved --> becomes fragile again --> needs to be consolidated again. In the fragile state, retrieved memory may be changed, strengthened or erased.
Case of H.M. Removing parts of hippocampus = unable to trasnfer any STM (which was intact) to LTM. E.g. he became quite good at mirrored drawing but did not remember practicing this.
Case of K.F. Auditory cortex damage from accident = reduced STM and digit span, but LTM was largely intact, as indicated by his ability to form and hold new memories of events in his life.
Case of K.C. Damage to hippocampus & surroundings = lost episodic memories, but kept semantic memory. He knows his brother is dead but doesn't remember anything about the personal facts.
Case of Clive Wearing Brain damage to medial temporal lobe (incl. hippocampus & amygdala). = He remembers recent 1-2 minutes, but forgets everything else. Suggests hippocampus is crucial for LTM but not STM.
4 stages of Piaget's stages of cognitive development Sensorimotor (0-2) Preoperational (2-7) Concrete operational (7-11) Formal operational (11+)
Sensorimotor Coordination of senses with motor responses
Preoperational Symbolic thinking, proper syntax & grammar
Concrete operational Concepts attached to concrete situations; time, space and quantity are understood and can be applied, but not as independent concepts.
Formal operational Theoretical, hypothetical & counterfactual thinking. Abstract logic & reasoning, strategy, planning.
Vigotsky on cognitive development Human mental & cognitive abilities are not biologically determined, but instead created and shaped by use of langauage and tools in process of interacting at construcing cultural and social environment. ! Social mediation & significance of play.
Two important things to Vigotsky Social mediation: importance of meidation and zone of proximal development Significance of play: viewed it as crucial aspect of children's development
What does the brain learn (in cognitive development)? Statistical structure of experienced events. Babies categorise what they see, forming generalised representation or prototype against which subsequently-presented stimuli are then compared.
Babies learn what based on correlational structure? Transitional probabilities Causal structure
3 ways of how we learn? Imitation Analogies Connectionism
4 ways/things of knowledge construction? Various approaches Physics Biology Psychology
Various approachees to knowledge construction? Definition approach Prototype approach Exemplar approach We do not know which is stronger
How do we construct knowledge in physics? Intuitive physics --> reliable info --> but misleading models, some things, such as Newtonian Law (throwing something out of a car) needs to be learned 2-3 year old: causal principles Scientific reasoning: develops slowly
How do we construct knowledge about pscyhology? Theory of mind: understanding why someone else did what they did. Development of this changes a lot between 2-5 y/o. Keeps developing into adolescene & late adulthood
Mirror neurons & knowledge construction? Mirror neurons activate when we see someone performning an action. They may be a neural substrate for understanding the actions and internal states of others.
Habituation Not hearing a sound bc you got used to it
Why do children have to pretend play? Shared pretend play provides opportunities for reflecting on one's own and other's desires/beliefs/emotions. Also, a child has to detach primary representation for pretend representation.
Metacognition Knowledge about cognition
Metacognition in children? - Children's awareness of themselves did not differ from adults - Younger children were less good at planning, directing & evaluating memory behaviour - As metamemroy skills develop, memory performance is enhanced.
Executive function in children? Children have difficulty in rule switching tasks, just like frontal lobe damage patients. When asked to verbalize it, they can do it. Young chilrdren have difficulty in flexibly shifting attention but can be overcome.
Why does inhibitory control improve with age? Frontal lobe development.
Deductive reasoning Logical syllogism. All dogs can fly. Rex is a dog. Rex can fly.
Inductive generalization Humans have spleens. Dogs have spleens. Do rabbits have spleens? Greater teh similarity, stronger the inductive interference.
What can young children do in terms of inductive reasoning? They can make analogies involving causal relations; encouraging metacognitive reflection improves analogical skills.
Created by: DoorBella
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