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# 9thSemTest23

Law of Conservation of Energy the law that states that energy is neither created nor destroyed
potential energy the energy of position or shape
kinetic energy the energy of motion
mechanical energy the total energy of motion and position of an object
energy the ability to do work
1/2 X m X v^2 Kinetic Energy formula
m X g X h Potential Energy formula
PE + KE Mechanical Energy formula
mass and velocity two factors influence the amount of Kinetic Energy of an object
mass and height two factors influence the amount of Potential Energy of an object
conduction the transfer of heat from a warmer object to a cooler object through direct contact
convection The transfer of heat by the movement of a fluid
convection current a current caused by the rising of heated fluid and sinking of cooled fluid
radiation the transfer of heat through electromagnetic rays
transverse wave waves that oscillate perpendicular to the direction of the motion
crest the high point of a wave
trough the low point of a wave
amplitude one half the distance between a waves high point and low point
wavelength measured from a point on one wave to the same point on the next wave
frequency the number of waves that pass a fixed point in a given unit of time
work The action that results when a force causes an object to move in the direction of the force
power the rate at which work is done
machine a device that helps make work easier by changing the size or direction (or both) of a force
Work input The work you do on a machine
Work output The work done by the machine
Mechanical advantage a number that tells how many times a machine multiplies force (no units)
Mechanical Efficiency is a comparison of a machine's work output with the work input (expressed as a percentage)
Simple machine the six machines from which all other machines are constructed
Compound machine a machine that is made of two or more simple machines
levers reduces the amount of effort required to lift something
First-class The fulcrum is somewhere in the middle, and the load and effort are on each side of the fulcrum
Second-class The fulcrum is to one side, the load is in the middle, and the effort is on the other side
Third-class The fulcrum is to one side, the effort is in the middle, and the load is on the other side
Inclined planes reduces the amount of effort required by increasing the work's distance
wedges a moveable inclined plane and it reduces the amount of work required to split or lift objects
screws a wedge (an inclined plane) wrapped around a shaft or post
Wheel and axel a simple machine consisting of two circular objects of different sizes; the wheel is the larger of the two circular objects
pulleys a simple machine consisting of a grooved wheel that holds a rope or a cable
force X distance work formula
joules units of work
work/time power formula
watts unit for power
force output/force input mechanical advantage formula
work output/work input mechanical efficiency formula
gravity the force that attracts masses together
weight The measurement of the force of gravity on an object that has mass.
mass the amount of matter in an object
friction the force that opposes movement between touching surfaces and always acts against the direction of motion.
static friction the force of friction between surfaces not in motion
sliding friction friction that occurs when one solid surface slides over another
rolling friction the friction between surfaces, when an object, such as a wheel or a ball, rolls freely over a surface.
fluid friction the friction that occurs as an object moves through a fluid
terminal velocity the speed at which the force of gravity equals air resistance
magnet any material that attracts iron or materials containing iron
electric force the attractive force between opposite charges and the repulsive force between like charges
centripetal force the force that causes objects to have circular motion
buoyancy an upward force exerted by a fluid onto an object that is
immersed in the fluid.
force of gravity and mass of the object What are two things that weight depends on?
9.8 m/s2 acceleration due to gravity on earth
Centripetal force always points toward the _______ of the circular path of motion. center
distance The force of gravity decreases as the _________ between masses increase.
In magnetic and electric forces, likes _______ and opposite _______. repel, attract
weight = mass x gravity
Created by: Ms. Greenup

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